المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : قواعد / أزمنة /لفظ/تراكيب/لطلاب الثانوية


عصام زودي
29-08-10, 01:26 مساء
هذا الدرس يقدم لك كل الأزمنة ضمن الشكل القواعدي+مثال+جملة أو جملتين تحلهم بتقليد المثال والشكل
Passive voice
(Simple Present)
S+V1+O (Active)
O + am/is/are +V 3 ………………………... (Affirmative)
O + am/is/are +not +V 3 ………………….. (Negative)
Am/is/are+ O +V 3 ………………………..? (Question)
Wh/ word +am/is/are+ O +V 3 ……………? (Wh/ Question)
Wh/ word +is +V 3 …………………………..…? (Wh/ Question)
• They play chess at home. (active)
• Chess is played at home. (Affirmative()
• Chess is not played at home. (Negative)
• Is chess played at home? (Question)
• Where is chess played? (Wh/ Question)
• What is played at home? (Wh/ Question)
• He drinks milk in the morning. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• They eat apples in the morning. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
(Simple past)
S+V2+O (Active)
O + was/were +V 3 ………………………... (Affirmative)
O + was/were +not +V 3 ………………….. (Negative)
Was/were + O +V 3 ……………………….. ? (Question)
Wh/ word +was/were + O +V 3 ………… ? (Wh/Question)
Wh/ word +was +V 3 ………………………? (Wh/Question)
• They played chess at home. (active)
• Chess was played at home. (Affirmative)
• Chess was not played at home. (Negative)
• Was chess played at home? (Question)
• Where was chess played? (Wh/ Question)
• What was played at home? (Wh/ Question)
• He drank milk yesterday. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• He ate apples yesterday.(active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
(Present continuous)
S+am/is/are+ V+ing+O (Active)
O + am/is/are +being + V 3 ………………... (Affirmative)
O + am/is/are +not +being + V 3 …………… (Negative)
Am/is/are+ O +being + V 3 ……………..…..? (Question)
Wh/ word+am/is/are+ O +being + V 3 ………? (Wh/ Question)
Wh/ word+is + being + V 3 ………………..……...? (Wh/ Question)
• They are playing chess at home. (active)
• Chess is being played at home. (Affirmative)
• Chess is not being played at home. (Negative)
• Is chess being played at home? (Question)
• Where is chess being played? (Wh/ Question)
• What is being played at home? (Wh/ Question)
• He is drinking milk now. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• They are eating apples now. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………….
• ………………………………………..
(Past continuous)
S+ was/were+ V+ ing +O (Active)
O + was/ were +being + V 3 ………………... (Affirmative)
O + was/ were +not +being + V 3 …………… (Negative)
Was/were + O +being + V 3 ……………..…..? (Question)
Wh/word+ was/were + O +being + V 3 ……..? (Wh/Question)
Wh/word+ was +being + V 3 ………………..? (Wh/Question)
• They were playing chess at home. (active)
• Chess was being played at home. (Affirmative)
• Chess was not being played at home. (Negative)
• Was chess being played at home? (Question)
• Where was chess being played? (Wh/ Question)
• What was being played at home? (Wh/ Question)
• He was drinking milk. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• They were eating apples. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
(Present perfect)
S+ have/has+ V3+O (Active)
O + have/has +been+ V 3 ………………………... (Affirmative)
O + have/has +not+ been +V 3 ………………….. (Negative)
Have/has + O +been +V 3 ………………………..? (Question)
Wh/ word+ have/has + O +been +V 3 …………...? (wh/Question)
Wh / word +has + +been +V 3 ……………..……? (wh/Question)
• They have played chess at home. (active)
• Chess has been played at home. (Affirmative)
• Chess has not been played at home. (Negative)
• Has chess been played at home? (Question)
• Where has chess been played? (Wh/ Question)
• What has been played at home? (Wh/ Question)
• He has drunk milk. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• They have eaten apples. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
(Past perfect)
S+ had+ V3+O (Active)
O + had +been+ V 3 ………………………... …… (Affirmative)
O + had +not+ been +V 3 ………………………... (Negative)
Had + O +been +V 3 …………………………….? (Question)
Wh/ word + had + O +been +V 3 ………………..? (Wh/Question)
Wh/ word + had + been +V 3 …………………...? (Question)
• They had played chess at home. (active)
• Chess had been played at home. (Affirmative)
• Chess had not been played at home. (Negative)
• Had chess been played at home? (Question)
• Where had chess been played? (Wh/ Question)
• What had been played at home? (Wh/ Question)
• He had drunk milk. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• They had eaten apples. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
Modals/ auxiliary /helping Verbs
S+Modal+V0+O………………………………………. (Active)
O+ auxiliary+be+v3…………………………………. (Affirmative)
O+ auxiliary +not + be+v3…………………………… (Negative)
Auxiliary +O+ be+v3…………………………………. (Question)
Wh/word +auxiliary +O+ be+v3………………………(Wh/Question)
Wh/word+ auxiliary+be+v3………………………………. (Wh/Question)
• They should play chess at home. (active)
• Chess should be played at home. (Affirmative)
• Chess should not be played at home. (Negative)
• Should chess be played at home? (Question)
• Where should chess be played? (Wh/ Question)
• What should be played at home? (Wh/ Question)
• He can drink milk. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• They will eat apples. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
Modals in the past
S+Modal+have+V3+O…………………………. (Active)
O+Modal+have+been+V3+ …………………… (Affirmative)
Modal+ O+have+been+V3+ ……………… (Question)
Wh/word+Modal +O+ +have+been+V3+ ……………… (WH /Question)
Wh/word+Modal +have+ been+V3+ ……………… (WH /Question)
• They should have played chess at home. (active)
• Chess should have been played at home. (Affirmative)
• Chess should not have been played at home. (Negative)
• Should chess have been played at home? (Question)
• Where should chess have been played? (Wh/ Question)
• What should have been played at home? (Wh/ Question)
• They will have eaten apples. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• They could have seen the movie. (active)
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..
• ………………………………………..

Conditional sentences
1. First Conditional
If+S+V1+………………….., S+will+V0……… (Active)
If+O+am/is/are+V3…, O+will+be+V3…………. (Affirmative)
If+O+am/is/are+not+V3…, O+will+not+be+V3………….(Negative)
Will +O+ be+V3………….if+O+am/is/are+not+V3…? (Question)
Wh /word +will +O+ be+V3….if+O+am/is/are+not+V3…? (Wh/question)
Wh/ word+will + be+V3…….if+O+am/is/are+not+V3…? (Wh/question)
If you break the window, he will punish you hard.
If the window is broken, you will be punished.
If the window is not broken, you will not be punished.
Will you be punished if the window is broken?
How will you be punished if the window is broken?
Who will be punished if the window is broken?
What will happen if the window is broken?
 If they miss the bus, they will run quickly.
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
2. Second Conditional
If+S+V2+………………….., S+would+V0……… (Active)
If+O+was/were+V3…, O+would+be+V3…………. (Affirmative)
If+O+was/were+not+V3…, O+would+not+be+V3………….(Negative)
Would +O+ be+V3………….if+O+was/were+V3…? (Question)
Wh /word +would +O+ be+V3….if+O+was/were +V3…? (Wh/question)
Wh/ word+ would + be+V3…….if+O+was/were+V3…? (Wh/question)
If you broke the window, he would punish you.
If the window was broken, you would be punished.
If the window was not broken, you would not be punished.
Would you be punished if the window was/were broken?
Who would be punished if the window was/were broken?
What would happen if the window was/were broken?
 If they miss the bus, Ali will rent a car quickly.
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
3. Third Conditional
If+S+had+V3+………………….., S+would+have+V3……… (Active)
If+O+had+been+V3………, O+ would+ have +been+V3…………. (Affirmative)
If+ O +had +not+ been+V3…, O+ would+ not+ have+ been +V3………(Negative)
Would + O+ have +been+……..if +O +had +been+ V3
Wh /word +had +O+ been+V3….if+ O+ had+ been +V3…? (Wh/question)
Wh/ word+ would + be+V3…….if+O+had+been+V3…? (Wh/question)
If you had broken the window, he would have punished you.
If the window had been broken, you would have been punished.
If the window had not been broken, you would not have been punished.
Would you have been punished if the window had been broken?
Who would have been punished if the window had been broken?
 If they had missed the bus, they would have rented a car quickly.
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
 ………………………………………..………………………..
:36_1_42: الأفضل هو الطباعة

عصام زودي
29-08-10, 01:43 مساء
Welcoming and Introducing

Good morning/afternoon, everyone.
If we are all here, let's get started / start the meeting / start.
Please join me in welcoming (name of participant)
We're pleased to welcome (name of participant)
I'd like to extend a warm welcome to (name of participant)
It's a pleasure to welcome (name of participant)
I'd like to introduce (name of participant)
Stating the Principal Objectives
We're here today to ...
I'd like to make sure that we ...
Our main aim today is to ...
I've called this meeting in order to ...
Giving Apologies for Someone Who is Absent
I'm afraid.., (name of participant) can't be with us today. She is in...
Unfortunately, (name of participant) ... will not be with us to day because he ...
I have received apologies for absence from (name of participant), who is in (place).
Reading the Minutes (notes) of the Last Meeting
To begin with I'd like to quickly go through the minutes of our last meeting.
First, let's go over the report from the last meeting, which was held on (date)
Here are the minutes from our last meeting, which was on (date)
Dealing with Recent Developments
Jack, can you tell us how the XYZ project is progressing?
Jack, how is the XYZ project coming along?
John, have you completed the report on the new accounting package?
Has everyone received a copy of the Tate Foundation report on current marketing trends?
Moving Forward
So, if there is nothing else we need to discuss, let's move on to today's agenda.
Shall we get down to business?
Is there Any Other Business?
If there are no further developments, I'd like to move on to today's topic.
Introducing the Agenda
Have you all received a copy of the agenda?
There are X items on the agenda. First, ... second, ... third, ... lastly, ...
Shall we take the points in this order?
If you don't mind, I'd like to go in order today.
skip item 1 and move on to item 3
I suggest we take item 2 last.
Allocating Roles (secretary, participants)
(name of participant) has agreed to take the minutes.
(name of participant), would you mind taking the minutes?
(name of participant) has kindly agreed to give us a report on ...
(name of participant) will lead point 1, (name of participant) point 2, and (name of participant) point 3.
(name of participant), would you mind taking notes today?
Agreeing on the Ground Rules for the Meeting (contributions, timing, decision-making, etc.)
We will first hear a short report on each point first, followed by a discussion of ...
I suggest we go round the table first.
Let's make sure we finish by ...
I'd suggest we ...
There will be five minutes for each item.
We'll have to keep each item to 15 minutes. Otherwise we'll never get through.
Introducing the First Item on the Agenda
So, let's start with ...
I'd suggest we start with...
Why don't we start with...
So, the first item on the agenda is
Pete, would you like to kick off?
Shall we start with ...
(name of participant), would you like to introduce this item?
Closing an Item
I think that takes care of the first item.
Shall we leave that item?
Why don't we move on to...
If nobody has anything else to add, lets ...
Next Item
Let's move onto the next item
Now that we've discussed X, let's now ...
The next item on today's agenda is...
Now we come to the question of.
Giving Control to the Next Participant
I'd like to hand over to (name of participant), who is going to lead the next point.
Next, (name of participant) is going to take s hrough ...
Now, I'd like to introduce (name of participant) who is going to ...
Finishing Up
Right, it looks as though we've covered the main items.
If there are no other comments, I'd like to wrap this meeting up.
Let's bring this to a close for today.
Is there Any Other Business?
Suggesting and Agreeing on Time, Date and Place for the Next Meeting
Can we set the date for the next meeting, please?
So, the next meeting will be on ... (day), the . . . (date) of.. . (month) at ...
Let's next meet on ... (day), the . . . (date) of.. . (month) at ... What about the following Wednesday? How is that?
Thanking Participants for Attending
I'd like to thank Marianne and Jeremy for coming over from London.
Thank you all for attending.
Thanks for your participation.
Closing the Meeting
The meeting is finished, we'll see each other next ...
The meeting is closed.
I declare the meeting closed.
The following phrases are used to conduct a meeting. These phrases are useful if you are called on to conduct a meeting.
Opening
Good morning/afternoon, everyone.
If we are all here, let's get started / start the meeting / start.
Welcoming and Introducing
Please join me in welcoming (name of participant)
We're pleased to welcome (name of participant)
I'd like to extend a warm welcome to (name of participant)
It's a pleasure to welcome (name of participant)
I'd like to introduce (name of participant)
If you don't mind, I'd like to go in order today.
skip item 1 and move on to item 3
I suggest we take item 2 last.
Allocating Roles (secretary, participants)
(name of participant) has agreed to take the minutes.
(name of participant), would you mind taking the minutes?
(name of participant) has kindly agreed to give us a report on ...
(name of participant) will lead point 1, (name of participant) point 2, and (name of participant) point 3.
(name of participant), would you mind taking notes today?
Agreeing on the Ground Rules for the Meeting (contributions, timing, decision-making, etc.)
We will first hear a short report on each point first, followed by a discussion of ...
I suggest we go round the table first.
Let's make sure we finish by ...
I'd suggest we ...
There will be five minutes for each item.
We'll have to keep each item to 15 minutes. Otherwise we'll never get through.
Closing an Item
I think that takes care of the first item.
Shall we leave that item?
Why don't we move on to...
If nobody has anything else to add, lets ...
Let's move onto the next item
Now that we've discussed X, let's now ...
The next item on today's agenda is...
Now we come to the question of.
Giving Control to the Next Participant
I'd like to hand over to (name of participant), who is going to lead the next point.
Next, (name of participant) is going to take us through ...
Now, I'd like to introduce (name of participant) who is going to ...
Summarizing
Before we close today's meeting, let me just summarize the main points.
Let me quickly go over today's main points.
To sum up, ...,.
OK, why don't we quickly summarize what we've done today.
In brief, ...
Shall I go over the main points?
Finishing Up
Right, it looks as though we've covered the main items.
If there are no other comments, I'd like to wrap this meeting up.
Let's bring this to a close for today.
Is there Any Other Business?
Suggesting and Agreeing on Time, Date and Place for the Next Meeting
Can we set the date for the next meeting, please?
So, the next meeting will be on ... (day), the . . . (date) of.. . (month) at ...
Let's next meet on ... (day), the . . . (date) of.. . (month) at ... What about the following Wednesday? How is that?
Thanking Participants for Attending
I'd like to thank Marianne and Jeremy for coming over from London.
Thank you all for attending.
Thanks for your participation.
Closing the Meeting
The meeting is finished, we'll see each other next ...
The meeting is closed.
I declare the meetinThe following phrases are used to participate in a meeting. These phrases are useful for expressing your ideas and giving input to a meeting.
Getting the Chairperson's Attention
(Mister/Madam) chairman.
May I have a word?
If I may, I think...
Excuse me for interrupting.
May I come in here?
Giving Opinions
I'm positive that...
I (really) feel that...
In my opinion...
The way I see things...
If you ask me,... I tend to think that...
Asking for Opinions
Are you positive that...
Do you (really) think that...
(name of participant) can we get your input?
How do you feel about...?
Commenting
That's interesting .
I never thought about it that way before.
Good point!
I get your point.
I see what you mean.
Agreeing
I totally agree with you.
Exactly!
That's (exactly) the way I feel.
I have to agree with (name of participant).
Disagreeing
Unfortunately, I see it differently.
Up to a point I agree with you, but...
(I'm afraid) I can't agree
Advising and Suggesting
Let's...
We should...
Why don't you....
How/What about...
I suggest/recommend that...
Clarifying
Let me spell out...
Have I made that clear?
Do you see what I'm getting at?
Let me put this another way...
I'd just like to repeat that...
Requesting Information
Please, could you...
I'd like you to...
Would you mind...
I wonder if you could...
Asking for Repetition
I'm afraid I didn't understand that. Could you repeat what you just said?
I didn't catch that. Could you repeat that, please?
I missed that. Could you say it again, please?
Could you run that by me one more time?
Asking for Clarification
I don't quite follow you. What exactly do you mean?
I'm afraid I don't quite understand what your are getting at.
Could you explain to me how that is going to work?
I don't see what you mean. Could we have some more details, please?
Asking for Verification
You did say next week, didn't you? ('did' is stressed)
Do you mean that...?
Is it true that...?
Asking for Spelling
Could you spell that, please?
Would you mind spelling that for me, please?
Asking for Contributions
We haven't heard from you yet, (name of participant).
What do you think about this proposal?
Would you like to add anything, (name of participant)?
Has anyone else got anything to contribute?
Are there any more comments?
Correcting Information
Sorry, that's not quite right.
I'm afraid you don't understand what I'm saying.
That's not quite what I had in mind.
That's not what I meant.
Keeping the Meeting On Target (time, relevance, decisions)
We're running short of time.
Well, that seems to be all the time we have today.
Please be brief.
I'm afraid we've run out of time.
I'm afraid that's outside the scope of this meeting.
Let's get back on track, why don't we?
That's not really why we're here today.
Why don't we return to the main focus of today's meeting.
We'll have to
leave that to another time.
We're beginning to lose sight of the main point.
We're beginning to lose sight of the main point.
Keep to the point, please.
Keep to the point, please.
I think we'd better leave that for another meeting.
I think we'd better leave that for another meeting.
Are we ready to make a decision?
:36_1_42: :36_1_42: :36_1_42:

عصام زودي
05-09-10, 08:42 مساء
Simple Present
الحاضر البسيط

صيغته
فاعل + التصريف الأول للفعل
مع المفرد الغائب
she - he – it
نضيف للفعل
S
يستعمل هذا الزمن في الحالتين التاليتين

أ-حقائق عامة أو علمية تصلح لكل زمان
1-General or Scientific Facts.

-The world is round.
-Most animals kill only for food.
-Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.

ب-أعمال اعتيادية أو يومية
2-Habitual or everyday activities.

-She goes to school everyday.
-I study for two hours every night
-My classes begin at nine.
-He always eats a sandwich for lunch.
ج-في حالة وجود التعبير
Right now
في لحظة من الحديث
-I have only a dollar right now.
-I don’t recognize that man he needs a pen right now.
الكلمات التي ترافقه
Usually - often - sometimes - everyday……
Present Progressive:
الحاضر المستمر
صيغته
(Is – am – are) +verb + ing
يستخدم للتعبير عن عمل ما يحدث في لحظة التكلم بشكلٍ مستمر
-He is talking on the phone now.
-I need an umbrella because it is raining.
-He is sleeping right now.
أو للتعبير عن فعل بدأ عموماً بالحاضر ومن المحتمل أن ينتهي في نقطةٍ ما بالمستقبل
-She is writing another book this year.
-I am taking five courses this semester.
-He is trying to improve his work habits.
الكلمات التي يمكن أن ترافقه
Right now - now - still - today - this month (week, year...) - this morning

حالات شاذة للحاضر المستمر والحاضر البسيط
أ-لا يستعمل الحاضر المستمر مع الأفعال التي تصف
حالة ذهنية مثل
Believe - feel - know - want – need - …
أفعال العواطف مثل
Love -like – hate
فعل الملكية مثل
Belong - own - have - possess
أفعال الحواس مثل:
Smell - taste - feel - hear - see
أفعال تشير إلى حالات خاصة قائمة مثل
Weigh - contain - include - look - seem - appear
مع هذه الأفعال نستعمل الحاضر البسيط حتى لو أشارت الجملة إلى حدوث الفعل لحظة التكلم، ولكن عندما تشير بعض من هذه الأفعال إلى حدوث الفعل كنشاطٍ وليس كحالة قائمة نستخدم الحاضر المستمر
الأفعال في الأمثلة التالية تشير إلى حالة قائمة وليس نشاط
-I think he is a kind man.
-He has a car.
-This food tastes good.
-These flowers smell good.
I see a butterfly. Do you see it?
-The cat’s fur feels soft.
-She looks cold. I’ll lend her my coat.
-He appears to be asleep.
-A piano is heavy. It weighs a lot.
-I am hungry
الأفعال في الأمثلة التالية تشير إلى نشاط وحركة وليس إلى حالة قائمة
ب-يستعمل الحاضر المستمر مع فعل الكون + صفة لوصف صفة مؤقتة ليست مألوفة للشخص نفسه تحدث في تلك اللحظة
Verb (be) + an adjective
مثل
-She is being foolish (lazy - silly - impolite...).
ج- نستخدم الحاضر المستمر مع الكلمات
(forever – always – constantly)
عندما تعبر الجملة عن الشكوى أو الانزعاج أو الغضب
-She is always leaving her dirty shoes on the floor, I can’t stand it.
أما إذا كانت تعبر عن حقيقة أو عمل اعتيادي فنستخدم الحاضر البسيط
-She always leaves her dirty shoes on the floor.
-Mary always leaves for school at 7:45.

The simple past tense
الصيغة
فاعل + فعل ماضي
الاستعمالات
أ-حدث بدأ وانتهى في الماضي ونعرف بالضبط متى تم ذلك أي يجب أن يكون الزمن محدد.
ولتحديد الزمن يغلب استعمال بعض الظروف مثل
(ago – yesterday – last week – last month – last year--------) .
-I sent a letter to my friend last month
-I visited Paris when I was young
ب-عادة كانت تتكرر في الماضي وانتهت في الماضي
-I swam in the sea everyday last summer
Past Perfect
الماضي التام
صيغته
Had + verb
حيث الفعل بالتصريف الثالث
الكلمات التي يمكن أن ترافقه
By the time - after - before - already
يستخدم الماضي التام للتعبير عن فعلٍ بدأ وانتهى قبل حدوث فعل آخر بالماضي
أي عندما يحدث فعلان في الماضي أحدهما انتهى قبل الآخر. نضع الفعل الأول بالماضي التام والثاني بالماضي البسيط
مثال
-He succeeded after he had studied.
-My parents had already eaten by the time I got home.
-Until yesterday, I had never heard about it.
-The thief simply walked in. Someone had forgotten to lock the door.
-Sam had already left when we got there.
-Sam had left before we got there.
Past Perfect Progressive
الماضي التام المستمر
صيغته
Had + been + Verb + ing
الكلمات التي يمكن أن ترافقه
For - since - all the day
أ- يستخدم للتأكيد على مدة حدوث فعل بدأ بالماضي ولا زال مستمراً قبل حدوث فعلٍ آخر بالماضي
مثال
-He had been studying for five hours before I came.
-The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him.

Present Perfect
الحاضر التام
صيغته
(Have – has) + verb
حيث الفعل يكون بالتصريف الثالث
الكلمات التي يمكن أن ترافقه
Already - never - since - for - ever - yet - just.
حيث تشير
For
إلى مدة من الزمن بينما تشير
Since
إلى زمن محدد
يستخدم الحاضر التام في الحالات التالية
أ-فعل بدأ بالماضي وقد انتهي للتو (قبل قليل) أو فعل حدث وانتهى في الماضي دون تحديد للزمن أي لا نعرف متى حدث الفعل
مثال
-I have already seen him.
-They have moved into a new apartment.
-I have never seen snow.
ب-للتعبير عن تكرار فعلٍ ما قد انتهى قبل الوقت الحاضر
مثال
-The phone has already rung for five times since the morning.
-We have had four tests so far this semester.
-I have written my wife a letter every other day for the last two
weeks.
-I have met many people since I came here in June.
-I have flown on an airplane many times.
ج- للتعبير عن حدثٍ بدأ بالماضي ومتواصلاً إلى الحاضر مع for وsince حصراً
مثال
-We have been here for two years.
-I have had this same pair of shoes for three years.
-I have liked cowboy movies ever since I was a child.
-I have known him for many years.

Present Perfect Progressive
الحاضر التام المستمر

صيغته
(Have - has) + been + Verb + ing.

الكلمات التي يمكن أن ترافقه
Since - for - all the day (afternoon – morning - …)

يستخدم للإشارة إلى مدة حدوث فعلٍ بدأ بالماضي ولا يزال متواصلاً حتى الحاضر وقد يستمر مستقبلاً وأكثر ما يستخدم مع الأفعال التي تحتاج إلى مدة أطول لحدوثها مثل
Play - study - wait - live - work – teach…..

مثال
-He has been waiting for 3 hours.
-I have been sitting here since seven o’clock.
-I have been sitting here for two hours.
-You have been studying for five straight hours.
-It has been raining all day.

يستخدم عند استعمال الفعل دون ذكر محدد للزمن و التعبير عن نشاط عام يحمل معنى الاستمرار
و يمكن أن يرافقه الظروف
Recently - lately

-I have been thinking about changing my major.
-All of the students have been studying hard. Final exams start next week.
-My back hurts, so I have been sleeping on the floor lately. The bed is too soft.

بعض الأفعال التي تحمل معنى الاستمرارية لمدة من الوقت يمكن التعبير عنها باستخدام الحاضر التام و لكن يفضل استعمال صيغة الحاضر التام المستمر معها
learn – live – rain – sit – sleep – stand – study – wait – work - …….

-I have lived here since 1985.
-I have been living here since 1985.

-He has worked at the same store for ten years.
-He has been working at the same store for ten years.
-The patient had been waiting in the emergency room for almost an hour before a doctor finally treated her.
ب- للتعبير عن فعلٍ كان مستمراً وكان سبباً لفعلٍ آخر بالماضي حصل بعده
مثال
-He was so tired because he had been playing all the afternoon.
-Her eyes were red because she had been crying.
The future continuous
المستقبل المستمر
شكل الزمن
Will + be + verb + ing
-I run everyday between 7-9.
-Now it is 8: I am running.
-Tomorrow at 8: I will be running at 8.
تدل على عمل مستقبلي مقرر مسبقاً مع سياق الأحداث
I am seeing Tom tomorrow
هنا المتحدث قد نظم مع توم لهذا اللقاء
-I will be seeing Tom tomorrow
سأقابل توم غداً شكل طبيعي مع سياق الأحداث اليومية دون الإعداد المسبق لهذا اللقاء
-I will be studying in the university next year.
أمثلة
-Don’t phone me at 8; I will be having dinner.
-Tomorrow a 5 I will be watching a match on TV.
-Let me see you at 6; I will be waiting you at the corner.
===========================
If sentences
Conditional Sentences:
1-If I study, I (will/can/may) succeed
2-If I studied, I (would/could/might) succeed
3-If I had studied, I (would/could/might) have succeeded


Idioms
اصطلاحات
Idioms with time:
At one time:
في الماضي – سابقاً – خلال فترة زمنية في الماضي
-He is used to work in the police department at one time.
In no time:
بسرعة – بوقت قصير
-I can solve this puzzle in no time.
In good time:
في الوقت المناسب - في اللحظة الصحيحة
-John came in good time when I needed him badly.
To time:
بدقة
-He wonders whether the buses are running to time.
Idioms with far:
As far as:
بمقدار ما
-As far as the teacher is concerned, she doesn’t object to our plans for a class outing.
By far:
إلى حد بعيد
Leila Ahmad is by far the smartest girl in the class.
Far and near:
في كل مكان
We searched far and near for the lost wallet.
From far:
من بعيد
You could hear the shooting from far.
Verbs
الأفعال
الأفعال نوعين
1-transitive
فعل متعدي يتبعه مفعول به
Raise! Raised! Raised
The man raised his head.
Set! Set! Set
I will set the book on the table.
Lay! Laid! Laid
He laid the book on the desk.
Hang! Hung! Hung
I hung my clothes in the closest.
Hang! Hanged! Hanged
They hanged the criminal by the neck until he died.

2-intransitive
فعل لازم لا يتبعه مفعول به
Rise! Rose! Risen
The sun rises in the east.
Sit! Sat! Sat
I sit in the front row.
Lie! Lay! Lain
He is lying in bed.
Phrasal verbs
تتصل بعض الأفعال مع حرف جر أو ظرف لتشكل معنى مختلف عن المعنى الأصلي للفعل وتسمى
phrasal verb
-We have run out of cigarettes
ومن أهم أحرف الجر أو الظروف التي تتصل بالفعل
away – on – off – back – out – down – in
MIXED CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
جمل شرطية متنوعة
فقرة شرطية تحوي شكل ماضي غير حقيقي يمكن تركيبها مع فقرة أساسية تحوي شكل حاضر غير حقيقي

-If the boy had listened to his parents last year, he wouldn’t be in trouble now.
لم يصغي الولد لوالديه(في الماضي) لذلك هو في مشكلة الآن (في الحاضر)
-He would be studying at the university now if he hadn’t failed the baccalaureate exam last year.
لو لم يرسب في امتحان البكالوريا العام الماضي لكان الآن يدرس في الجامعة هذا العام ( حاضر)
Passive
المبني للمجهول

كيفية تحويل الجملة من المبني للمعلوم
Active
إلى المبني للمجهول
Passive
أ-نحذف الفاعل
ب-ننقل المفعول به إلى أول الجملة ليصبح الفاعل الجديد وننقل المبتدأ إلى ما بعد الفعل ونسبقه بـ
By
ج-نضيف
To be
بأزمنتها المختلفة مطابقاً لزمن الفعل في الجملة
الحاضر البسيط
Is – am – are

الماضي البسيط
Was – were
المستقبل البسيط
(Will – would – can – could – must – may - shall) + be
الأزمنة المستمرة
Being
الأزمنة التامة
Been
د-نحول فعل الجملة إلى اسم مفعول (الصيغة الثالثة للفعل)
هـ-نوازن الجملة ونعد الأفعال حيث يجب أن يكون عدد الأفعال قد زاد واحد
أمثلة
-Huda has finished the exam.
-The exam has been finished by Huda.

-He is eating an apples.
-An apples are being eaten.

-He is eating an apple.
-An apple is being eaten.

-They were eating an apple.
-An apple was being eaten.

-She was eating an apples
-An apples were being eaten.

-We have done the exercise.
-The exercise has been done.

-She has done the exercises.
-The exercises have been done.

-I will build a house.
-A house will be built.

-They like English.
-English is liked.

-I ate apples.
-Apples were eaten.

-She gave me a letter.
-A letter was given.

-They were building a house.
-A house was being built.

-Camels carry heavy loads.
-Heavy loads are carried.
-We spoke many languages.
-Many languages were spoken.
THE FORM OF MODAL AUXILIARIES
صيغة الأفعال المساعدة

الأفعال المساعدة تعبر عن وظائف لغوية ومعاني مختلفة حسب السياق ولكنها تتميز بمواصفات واحدة
الفعل بعدها يأتي في صيغة المصدر و لا يقبل أي إضافة مثل
s – ed – ing
ما عدا الأفعال المساعدة التالية
Used to – have to – ought to
لا تأتي
To
بعد الأفعال المساعدة الأخرى
لا يمكن للفعل المساعد أن يأتي بمفرده دون الفعل الرئيسي ليعبر عن المعنى المطلوب
لا تحتاج هذه الأفعال إلى
Do – does – did
في حالتي النفي و الاستفهام بل تقوم هي بهذا الدور
خلافاً للفعل العادي لها فقط صيغة أو صيغتين (الحاضر – الماضي) وليس ثلاثة
Can-----could
May-----might
Must----must
الأفعال التالية
Have to – has to – had to
تعتبر فعل عادي وتعامل مثله في النفي والاستفهام.
-You don’t have to tell him.
-Does he have to come early?
Can:
I can speak English.
Could:
He couldn’t come to class.
May:
It may rain tomorrow.
Might:
It might rain tomorrow.
Should:
Mary should study tonight.
Had better:
I had better study tonight.

Must:
Joe must see a doctor today.
Will:
I will be in class tomorrow.
Would:
Would you please close the door?
Have to:
I have to study tonight.
Have got to:
I have got to study tonight.
Ought to:
Kate ought to study harder.
Should, ought to, had better
تستخدم للتعبير عن النصيحة وتعني
هذه فكرة جيدة – هذه نصيحة جيدة
-My clothes are dirty. I should wash them.
-My clothes are dirty. I ought to wash them.
-My clothes are dirty. I had better wash them.
الصيغة المختصرة لـ
Should not = shouldn’t
وتعني لا يجب
-You need your sleep. You shouldn’t stay up late.
الصيغة المختصرة لـ
Had better = ‘d better
وعلى الرغم من أن
Had
هي صيغة الماضي من
Have
إلا أنها تعتبر جزء من اصطلاح فعلي و لا تعبر عن الماضي بل عن الحاضر أو المستقبل و معناها
من الضروري أن …
-You’d better study tonight.
-They’d better study tonight.
لا تستخدم
Ought to
في النفي بل تستخدم
Had better not
و التي تحمل نفس الإنذار ضد النتائج السيئة المحتملة:
-You had better not be late. If you are late, you will got into a lot of trouble.





Showing Relationships between ideas
استخدام أدوات الربط المتلازمة
1-Both…….and:
تعني
كلاً من……..و
وتستخدم للمثنى مع تحديد كل طرف و يأتي الفعل بعدها بصيغة الجمع و ليس المفرد
الصيغة
Both + noun + and + noun
-Both my mother and my father are here.
-Both Fadi and Rami are happy.
-Both Mary and Lui leave at 6:00.
-The research project will take both time and money.
2-Not only…….but also:
تعني
ليس فقط………بل أيضاً
وتستخدم لتأكيد اشتراك أكثر من عنصر في الجملة. و الذي يحدد صيغة الفعل مفرد أو جمع هو الفاعل الأقرب إلى هذا الفعل
الصيغة
Not only + noun + but also + noun
Not only + verb + but also + verb
-Not only my mother but also my sister is here.
-Not only my sister but also my parents are here.
-He not only speaks but also writes French.
-Yesterday it not only rained but also snowed.
3-Neither…….nor:
تعني
لا…….و لا
و تستخدم في حالة النفي لكل من الفاعلين. و الذي يحدد صيغة الفعل هو الفاعل الأقرب إلى هذا الفعل
الصيغة
Neither + noun + nor + noun
Neither + adjective + nor + adjective
-Neither my sister nor my parents are her.
-Neither my mother nor my sister is here.
-That book is neither interesting nor accurate.
4-Either…..or:
تعني
إما…….أو
تستخدم في حالة الإثبات للاختيار بين اثنين. و الذي يحدد صيغة الفعل هو الفاعل الأقرب إلى هذا الفعل
الصيغة
Either + noun + or + noun
Either + adjective + or + adjective

-Either Fadi or Rami leaves at 6:00.
-He is either tired or busy.
-I’ll take either chemistry or physics next.
Conditional sentences
الجمل الشرطية
للجمل الشرطية أنواع هي
أ-إذا كان فعل الشرط حاضر بسيط فإن جواب الشرط حاضر بسيط أو مستقبل بسيط
-If I see you; I give you the book.
-If I see you; I will give you the book.
الفعل هنا محتمل أن يحدث في المستقبل
ب-إذا كان فعل الشرط ماضي بسيط فإن جواب الشرط يكون
Would + verb
حيث الفعل هنا مصدر
-If I saw you, I would give you the letter.
الفعل هنا غير محتمل الحدوث
ج-إذا كان فعل الشرط ماضي تام
Had + verb
فإن جواب الشرط يكون
Would + have + verb
حيث الفعل هنا بالصيغة الثالثة
-If I had seen you, I would have given you the letter.
الفعل هنا غير ممكن الحدوث
حالات خاصة للجمل الشرطية

أ-لا د اعي لاستخدام
Will
عندما تعبر الجملة عن عمل اعتيادي بل نستخدم الحاضر البسيط
-I always come late, if I get up late.
ب-عند وجود حقيقة مؤكدة أو يمكن التنبؤ بها نستخدم إما الحاضر البسيط أو المستقبل البسيط في شبه جملة جواب الشرط
-If you go towards the north, it becomes colder.
-If you go towards the north, it will become colder.
ج-للتعبير عن عمل ما في المستقبل يمكن استخدام المستقبل البسيط في جملة جواب الشرط
-If I go to bed late, I will get up late.
-If you are all right, we will visit you tomorrow.
Untrue in the present
الحاضر غير الحقيقي
نستخدم
Were
بدلاً من
Was
و ذلك لكل الضمائر عند وجود حالة افتراضية غير حقيقية في الحاضر
-If I were you, I would behave differently.
-If he were here right now, he would help us.
Untrue in the past
الماضي غير الحقيقي

إذا كان الافتراض في الماضي فإننا نستخدم الصيغة التالية
Would + have + verb3 >>>> had + verb3
حيث الفعل هنا في قسمي الملة يكون بالتصريف الثالث
-We would have enjoyed the party better, if he had not been angry.
-If you had told me about the problem, I would have helped you.
-If they had studied, they would have passed the exam.
-If I hadn’t slipped on the ice, I wouldn’t have broken my arm.
Gerunds
صيغة المصدر
أ-استخدام المصدر كمفعول لحرف الجر
-يمكن استخدام المصدر المنتهي بـ
Ing
كمفعول لحرف الجر كما في الأمثلة التالية
-We talked about going to Canada for our vacation.
-Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting.
-I’m interested in learning more about your work.
-You are capable of doing better work.
يمكن استعمال المصدر مع
To
لأنها حرف جر و ليس جزء من المصدر.
-I used to sleeping with the window open.
-I look forward to going home next month.
-They object to changing their plans at this late date.
يمكن استعمال
Not
مع المصدر
-We talked about not going to the meeting.
ب-استخدام المصدر مع الأفعال
يمكن استخدام المصدر المنتهي بـ
Ing
مع بعض الأفعال مثل
Avoid – give up – quit – enjoy – like – think – consider – suggest – discuss – finish – stop – mind – keep
-I enjoy playing tennis.
-I enjoy having a long walking every morning.
-Joe quit smoking.
Joe give up smoking.
Question making
Question words
-When:
متى
تستخدم للسؤال عن الزمن
-When did they arrive?
-When will you come?
-Where:
أين
تستخدم للسؤال عن المكان
-Where is she?
-Where I can find a pen?
-Why:
لماذا
تستخدم للسؤال عن السبب
-Why did he leave early?
-When aren’t you coming with us?
-How:
كيف
تستخدم للسؤال عن الحال أو الكيفية
-How did you come to school?
-How does he drive?
-How much:
كم – كم السعر
تستخدم للسؤال عن الكمية أو السعر مع الأسماء غير القابلة للعد
-How much money does it cost?
-How many:
كم
تستخدم للسؤال عن الكمية مع الأسماء القابلة للعد
-How old:
كم العمر
تستخدم للسؤال عن العمر
-How old are you?
-How cold:
-How hot:
كم درجة البرودة – أو السخونة
تستخدم للسؤال عن درجات الحرارة
-How cold is it?
-How fast:
كم السرعة
تستخدم للسؤال عن السرعة
-How fast were you driving?
-How long:
كم مضى من الوقت
تستخدم للسؤال عن المدة الزمنية
-How long has he been here?
-How often:
كم مرة
تستخدم للسؤال عن عدد المرات
-How often do you write home?
-How far:
كم تبعد
تستخدم للسؤال عن المسافة
-How far is it to Hasake from here?
-How soon:
كم يستغرق
تستخدم للسؤال عن الوقت اللازم لإنجاز عمل ما
-How soon can you get here?
-Who:
من
تستخدم للسؤال عن الفاعل العاقل
-Who can answer that question?
-Who came to visit you?
-Who wants to come with me?
-Whom:
من
تستخدم للسؤال عن المفعول العاقل
-Whom did you see?
-Whom are you visiting?
-Whom should I talk to?
-To whom should I talk?
-Whose:
لمن
تستخدم للسؤال عن الملكية للعاقل و غير العاقل
-Whose key is this?
-What:
ماذا - ما
تستخدم للسؤال عن الأشياء و الأفعال و اللون و النوع…
-What made you angry?
-What do you need?
-What kind of soup is that?
-What did you do last night?
-What countries did you visit?
-What time did she come?
-What color is his hair?
-What is Ahmad like?
-What does her house look like?
-Which:
أي
تستخدم للاختيار
-Which pen do you want?
-Which countries did he visit?
صياغة السؤال
أ-نضع كلمة الاستفهام المناسبة
When
ب-نضع الفعل المساعد حسب تركيب الجملة
When can
ج-نضع الفاعل أو الضمير حسب وروده في الجملة
When can the doctor
د-نضع الفعل بالمصدر
When can the doctor see
هـ-نكمل الجملة ونضع إشارة الاستفهام
When can the doctor see you?

Articles
أدوات التعريف و التنكير
A:
تستعمل مع الاسم المفرد القابل للعد أو مع الصفة التي يليها اسم مفرد قابل للعد في حالة النكرة
-I left a note for you.
-you’ll have to wear a different shirt.
-An:
تستعمل مع الاسم المفرد القابل للعد أو مع الصفة التي يليها اسم مفرد قابل للعد على أن يبدأ الاسم بحرف صوتي في حالة النكرة
a – e – I – o – u
-I have an idea.
-The:
تستعمل مع الاسم المفرد القابل للعد أو الصفة التي يليها اسم مفرد قابل للعد ولكن شرط أن يكون الاسم محدد أي معرفة أو قد تم ذكره للتو
-You have a good reason for being late. Did you think the reason Ahmad gave was believable?
ملاحظة
لا نستعمل أي من الأدوات السابقة عندما نتكلم بشكل عام أو عن حقائق عامة
-Beef is a kind of meat.
-Every one has problem in life.
Verb forms following wish

تستعمل للتمني مستقبلاً و يأتي الفعل بعدها بصيغة الماضي
-I wish she would tell me.
-I wish he were going to be here.
-I wish she could come tomorrow.
تستعمل للتمني حاضراً و يأتي الفعل بعدها بصيغة الماضي
-I wish I knew French.
-I wish it weren’t raining right now.
تستعمل للتمني ماضياً والفعل بعدها يأتي بصيغة الماضي التام. و إذا احتوت على فعل مساعد تكون الصيغة كالتالي
Could (would) + have + verb3
حيث الفعل بالتصريف الثالث
-I wish I had known French.
-I wish she could have come.
Question tag
هناك طريقتين لتشكيل
Question tag
أ-الطريقة المباشرة
إذا كان في الجملة أحد الأفعال التالية
الأفعال المساعدة
Is – am – are – was – were – can – could – shall – will – should – would – may – might – have – has – had.
نخرج الفعل وننفيه إن كان في حالة الإثبات .ونثبته إذا كان في حالة النفي.ونضع ضمير يمثل الفاعل
-Hani is a good boy, is not he?
-The boys have gone early, haven’t they?
-Huda can’t swim, can she?
هناك استثناء وحيد لهذه القاعدة وهي كلمة
am
-I am good at English, aren’t I?

ب-الطريقة غير المباشرة
في حالة لم يكن في الجملة أي من الأفعال السابقة نستخدم
Do – does –did
-She speaks English, doesn’t she?
-They like English, don’t they?
-That girl came early, didn’t she?

هناك حالة خاصة هي
-Let’s take a short rest, shall we?
أمثلة
-It’s easy, isn’t it?
-He’ll come, won’t he?
-You saw it, didn’t you?
-He’s gone, hasn’t he?
-They have a Mercedes, don’t they
-You are not going, are you?
-She won’t do it, will she?
-They didn’t wait, did they?
-He has a villa, doesn’t he?
Conditional sentences
Type 2

الصيغة
Simple past with would/could/might

-If I studied, I would succeed

أمثلة
-If I had the money, I would buy an island.
-If I were a bird, I could fly.
-Unless it were hot, we wouldn’t go swimming.



Conditional sentences type 3

الصيغة
If-clause (past perfect) + main clause (would/could/should/might) + have + past participle

If he had studied, he would have succeeded

تستخدم هذه الصيغة للإشارة إلى حدث في الماضي لم يحدث
-If you had hurried, you would have caught the train.
الجملة السابقة تعني أنك لم تركب القطار لأنك لم تسرع

أمثلة
-If he had driven carefully, he wouldn’t have run into that tree.
-If the car had not turned upside down, he could have got out of it.
-If he had fastened his seat belt, he mightn’t have been injured.

Replacing if :
حالات استبدال
if

1-Unless
وتعني ما لم :
إذا احتوت الجملة على كلمة
Not
يمكن البدء بكلمة
Unless
-If you had not hurried, you would have missed the show. >>>>>>
-Unless you had hurried, you would have missed the show.

2-subject-verb inversion:
-If he had studied, he would have succeeded. >>>>>>
-Had he studied, he would have succeeded.
وتعني بأنه لو كان قد درس لكان قد نجح ( و هذا طالب لم يدرس ولم ينجح لذلك ترى هذه الحالة)



Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
الأفعال المتعدية و اللازمة

هناك أفعالاً خاصة تُتبع بمفعول مثل

raise, raised, raised
-Tom raised his head.

Set, set, set
-I will set the book on the desk.

Lay, laid, laid
-I am laying the book on the desk.

Hang, hung, hung
-I hung my clothes in the closet.

هناك أفعالاً خاصة لا تُتبع بمفعول مثل

Rise, rose, risen
-The sun rises in the east.

Sit, sat, sat
-I sit in the front row.

Lie, lay, lain
-He is lying on his bed.

Hang, hanged, hanged
-They hanged the criminal by the neck until he was dead.

.

A: Indefinite pronouns
ضمائر غير محددة
1-singular:
مفرد
Anybody – either – neither – one – anyone – everybody – nobody – somebody – each – everyone – no one - someone.
تنسجم الضمائر السابقة مع فعل في حالة المفرد
Singular verb
-Anyone has a name.
-Either dress looks well on Sue.

2-plural:
جمع
Both – few – many – several
تنسجم الضمائر السابقة مع فعل في حالة الجمع
Plural verb
-Both have strange name.
-Many cars are sold every year.

3-singular or plural:
Singular verb:
All – any – most – none – some
تستخدم الضمائر السابقة مع فعل في حالة المفرد عندما تشير إلى كمية موحدة (كتلة واحدة)
-All of fruit is ripe.
-Most satisfaction comes from good work.

Plural verb:
تستخدم الضمائر السابقة مع فعل في حالة الجمع عندما تشير إلى عدد أو رقم

-All of the apples are ripe.
-Most students come on time.

B: Collective nouns
الأسماء الشاملة
1-singular:
عندما يشير الاسم الشامل إلى مجموعة تتصرف كفرد واحد وليس كأفراد فالاسم يكون مفرد وبالتالي الفعل المرافق مفرد
Singular verb
-The committee has agreed on the new project.

2-plural:
عندما يشير الاسم الشامل إلى مجموعة تتصرف كأفراد منفصلين فالاسم يكون جمع وبالتالي الفعل المرافق جمع
Plural verb
-The committee are arguing about the issue.

C- Plural title
العناوين التي تحمل صيغة الجمع
عناوين الكتب أو المنظمات والهيئات أو أسماء البلدان تأخذ فعل مفرد
Singular verb
رغم أنها قد تبدو جمع
-The United Nations works for global peace.

Obligation using “have to”
استخدم
have to
لتعبر عن الإلزام أو عن الأشياء التي من الضروري فعلها

-Mike has to be at work at nine o’clock.
-I have to go now
1-Don’t/ doesn’t have to:
تستخدم للتعبير عن أن لا ضرورة لفعل شيء ما
-I finished all of my homework this afternoon. I don’t have to study tonight.
-Tomorrow is a holiday. Mary doesn’t have to go to class.
2-Must not
تستخدم للتعبير عن ضرورة الامتناع عن…أو اجتناب شيء ما
-You must not say that word.
-You must not play with matches!
الصيغة المختصرة
Must not = mustn’t

-You mustn’t play with matches.
Simple Past and Past Progressive
الماضي البسيط والماضي المستمر

أ- يستعمل الماضي البسيط للإشارة إلى فعلٍ حدث بالماضي في نقطة محددة. و نعرف بالضبط متى تم ذلك. أي يجب أن يكون الزمن محدد. و لتحديد الزمن يغلب استعمال بعض الظروف التي تحدد الزمن

صيغته
فاعل + فعل بالتصريف الثاني

الكلمات التي ترافقه
Was - were - ago - yesterday - last night (month - year - week..)

مثال
- It was beautiful yesterday.
-He visited his uncle last year.
-I walked to school yesterday.
-I bought a new car three days ago.

ب- يستعمل الماضي المستمر عند وجود فعلين أحدهما كان مستمراً خلال فترة بالماضي و إذا بفعل آخر ربما أكثر أهمية أو إثارة يدخل على الفعل فيقاطعه أو يوقفه فنعبر عن الفعل الأول بالماضي المستمر والفعل الجديد بالماضي البسيط. ويغلب هنا استعمال بعض الظروف مثل
When – while – as – just as

الصيغة
(Was - were) + verb +ing

-Madhat was climbing the stairs when he tripped.
-I was walking down the street when it began to rain.
-I was standing under a tree when it began to rain.

ج- يستعمل الماضي المستمر عند وجود فعلين كانا مستمرين بالماضي في وقتٍ واحد دون أن يقطع أحدهما الآخر
مثال
- While I was reading a story, she was watching TV.

د- يستعمل الماضي المستمر للإشارة إلى استمرارية الفعل في زمنٍ محدد بالماضي واحتمال تواصله بالماضي.
مثال
At eight o’clock last night I was studying.

Using Adverb clauses to show time relationships
استخدام أشبه الجمل الزمنية و علاقتها بأزمنة الفعل

1-Afterefore:
إذا كانت محتواه في أشباه الجمل الزمنية نستخدم الحاضر و ليس المستقبل
من الخطأ القول
Wrong = I will leave before he will come.
و الصحيح القول
Correct = I will leave before he comes.

2-When:
عندما
تستخدم مع الحاضر و الماضي على السواء و تفترض وجود فعلين في الجملة
-I saw him when he arrived.
-When I arrived, he was talking on the phone.
-When I got there, he had already left.
-When it began to rain, I stood under a tree.
-When I see him tomorrow, I will ask him.


3-while/as:
بينما
تستخدم مع الماضي المستمر للإشارة إلى استمرارية الفعل عند حدوث فعل آخر
-While I was walking home, it began to rain.
-As I was walking home, it began to rain.
-While he was playing, he broke his leg.
-As he was playing, he broke his leg.


4-By the time:
في الوقت الذي
تستخدم مع الفعل الذي أنجز قبل أن يحدث الفعل الآخر سواءً مع الحاضر أو الماضي
-By the time he arrived, we had already left.
-By the time he comes, we will already have left.
-By the time he finishes his work, I will call him.


5-Since:
منذ
تستخدم للإشارة إلى زمن حدوث الفعل من الماضي و حتى الحاضر. و تستخدم حصراً مع الماضي التام
-She hasn’t visited us since last spring.
-I haven’t seen him since he left this morning.


6-Until ill:
حتى
تستخدم للإشارة إلى مدة من الزمن من الماضي و حتى الحاضر
-We stayed there until we finished our work.
-We stayed there till we finished our work.


7-As soon asonce:
حالما – عندما
تستخدم للإشارة إلى فعل سيحدث بعد فعل آخر
-As soon as it stops raining, we will leave.
-Once it stops raining, we will leave.


8-As long asso long as:
طالما
تستخدم للإشارة إلى مدة من الزمن من بدايتها و حتى نهايتها و تفترض وجود فعلين متلازمين
-I will never speak to him again as long as I live.
-I will never speak to him again so long as I live.


9-Wheneverevery time:
كلما – كل مرة
و تشير إلى عادة أو تقليد
-Whenever I see her, I say hello.
-Every time I see her, I say hello.
-Whenever I visit him, he is busy.


10-The (first – second – third – last – next) time:
تستخدم لتقديم أشباه الجمل الظرفية
-The first time I went to New York, I went to an opera.
-I saw two plays the last time I went to New York.
-The next time I go to New York, I’m going to see a ballet.
-He was sick the last time I saw him.
-The next time we play, we will win.


استخدام المصدر مع الأفعال

أ-بعض الأفعال تتبع بمصدر مباشرة
-I hope to see you again soon.
-He promised to be here by ten.
توضع كلمة
Not
بعد الفعل مباشرة في حالة النفي
-He promised not to be late.

ب-بعض الأفعال تتبع باسم أو ضمير و من ثم المصدر
-He told me to come early.
-He told me to be here at ten.
-The police ordered the driver to stop.

ج-بعض الأفعال تتبع مباشرة بمصدر عندما تستخدم في حالة المجهول
-The driver was ordered to stop.

ء-بعض الأفعال مثل
Need – want – would like – expect – ask
يمكن الاستغناء عن الاسم أو الضمير بعدها.
-I expect to pass the test.
-I expect Mary to pass the test.

ملاحظة
الفعل
Intend
يأتي بعده المصدر و يليه
To
-I intend going to the meeting.

الفعل
Advise
يستعمل مع المصدر إذا لم يأتي بعده مفعول. أما إذا جاء بعده مفعول يجب استخدام المصدر من نوع
to
-He advised buying a Fiat.
-He advised me to buy a Fiat.
-I was advised to buy a Fiat.
Showing opposition
إظهار التعارض و نتيجة غير متوقعة

1-Even though – although – though:
على الرغم من
نستخدم الفاصلة بعد شبه الجملة الأولى. و نبدأ بالجملة ( السبب ) ثم الجملة ( الأثر – النتيجة)
-Although it was cold, I went swimming.
-Even though it was cold, I went swimming.
-Though it was cold, I went swimming.

2-But – anyway – but…still – yet…still:
لكن – على أية حال – لكن – مع ذلك
هنا نستخدم الفاصلة قبل هذه الأدوات و نبدأ بالجملة (السبب) ثم الجملة (الأثر)
-It was cold, but I went swimming anyway.
-It was cold, but I still went swimming.
-It was cold, yet I still went swimming.

3-Nevertheless – nonetheless – however:
على الرغم من ذلك
هنا نستعمل الفاصلة بعد هذه الكلمات و نقطة بين شبه الجملتين
و نبدأ بالجملة ( السبب ) ثم الجملة ( الأثر )
-It was cold. Nevertheless, I went swimming.
-It was cold. Nonetheless, I went swimming.
-It was cold. However, I still went swimming.

4-Despite – in spite of:
على الرغم من
هنا لا فواصل و لكن نبدأ بالجملة ( الأثر ) ثم الجملة ( السبب ) على عكس ما تقدم
-I went swimming despite the cold weather.
-I went swimming in spite of the cold weather.





Linking verbs
أفعال الوصل

تستخدم الصفات بعد أفعال الوصل
-Are you tired?
-Be careful!
-I’m getting hungry.
-Do you feel tired?
-The dinner smells good.
-Ahmad sounded angry when I spoke to him on the phone.
-Your friend seems very nice.
-Your tea tastes a bit strange.

أما بعد أفعال الحركة فيجب استخدام الحال
-Drive carefully!
-Susan plays the piano very well
-Khaled shouted at me angrily.

تستخدم الصفات بعد
Look
عندما تكون فعل وصل وتعني يبدو
Seem
-Samer looked sad when I saw him.
أما بعد
Look at
نستخدم ظرف
-Samer looked at me sadly.

Cause and effect
السبب و النتيجة

1-Adverb clause:
شبه الجملة الظرفية
يمكن لشبه الجملة الظرفية أن تسبق أو تتبع شبه الجملة الرئيسية
-Because it was hot, we went swimming.
-We went swimming because it was hot.
الفاصلة هنا تأتي بعد شبه الجملة الظرفية إذا جاءت أولاً. كما في الجملة الأولى

2-Preposition:
حرف الجر
يُتبع حرف الجر بمفعول اسم و ليس بفاعل (مبتدأ) أو فعل. و تستعمل عادة فاصلة إذا جاءت عبارة حرف الجر
Because of
قبل الفاعل أو الفعل في شبه الجملة الرئيسية
-Because of the hot weather, we went swimming.
-We went swimming because of the hot weather.
-Because of the heavy traffic, we were late to the meeting.

3-Transition:
الانتقال
يمكن وضع كلمة مثل
Therefor
في بداية أو وسط أو آخر الجملة الثانية التي تعتبر أثر أو نتيجة للجملة الأولى (السبب) لإظهار العلاقة بينهما

يمكن وضع نقطة بين شبه الجملتين الرئيسيتين و لا يمكن استخدام فاصلة لفصلهما لأن الفواصل تستخدم لعزل (الانتقال) عن باقي الجملة
-It was hot. Therefor, we went swimming.
-It was hot. We, therefor, went swimming.
-It was hot. We went swimming, therefor.

4-Conjunction:
أداة الربط
تأتي أداة الربط بين شبه جملتين رئيسيتين و نضع فاصلة أمام أداة الربط
-It was hot, so we went swimming.
Future Progressive
المستقبل المستمر

تستخدم صيغة المستقبل المستمر
Will + be + Verb + ing

للتعبير عن فعلٍ سيحدث بشكلٍ مستمر في نقطة ما بالمستقبل

الكلمات التي يمكن أن ترافقه
When - at the same time - at this time

-I will be studying when you come.
-At this same time tomorrow, I will be sitting in class.

الشكل المستمر لـ
Be going to
Be going to + be + ing

-I am going to be studying at the library.

أحياناً يكون هناك اختلاف بسيط أو لا يوجد اختلاف بين المستقبل المستمر و المستقبل البسيط خصوصاً إذا كان الفعل سيحدث في زمن مجهول في المستقبل
-Don’t get impatient. She will be coming soon.
-Don’t get impatient. She will come soon.


Used to
معتاد على

تستعمل
Used to

للدلالة على عمل اعتيادي كان يحدث في الماضي ولم يعد يحدث في الوقت الحاضر

-When I was young, I used to wear jeans.
أي أن صاحب هذا الكلام لا يلبس الآن جينز بل اعتاد على لبسه في الوقت الماضي

-When I was a little child; I used to play “hide and seek” with my friend.
-Damascus used to be a green city; now it is a jungle of cement

صيغة النفي والاستفهام
-Which school did you use to go to in the elementary stage?
-I didn’t use to learn English when I was in the 4 primary class.

لا نستطيع استخدام
Use to

مع مرجع زمني + رقم

من الخطأ القول
-We used to have a holiday there for 10 years.
والصحيح القول
-We used to go there every year.
Preference
التعبير عن التفضيل

1-Prefer:
الصيغة
Prefer + noun + to + noun
Prefer + ing verb + to + ing verb

-I prefer apples to oranges.
-I prefer watching TV to studying.

2-like:
الصيغة
Like + noun + better than + noun
Like + ing verb + better than + ing verb

-I like apples better than oranges.
-I like watching TV better than studying.

3-Would rather
الصيغة
Would rather + simple form of verb + noun + than + verb

-Ann would rather have an apple than have an orange.
الصيغة المختصر
Would rather = ‘d rather
-I’d rather visit a big city than live there.

تستعمل
Would rather
في الطلبات المهذبة عند التفضيل وتتبع بـ
Or
-Would you rather have an apple or an orange.

1-Must:
تستعمل لتأكيد أن شيء ما صحيح
-I am sure you are tired.
-You must be tired.
-I hear that your examinations are next week. You must be studying very hard at the moment.
-Carols knows a lot about films. She must go to the cinema a lot.
2-Can’t:
تستخدم لنفي إمكانية حدوث الشيء
-You’ve only just had dinner. You can’t be hungry already.
-Tom said that he would be here ten minutes ago and he is never late. He can’t be coming.
للماضي نستخدم
Must have + verb
Can’t have + verb
حيث الفعل يكون بالتصريف الثالث
-The phone rang but I didn’t hear it. I must have been asleep.
-I made a lot of noise when I came home. You must have heard me.
-She can’t have been looking where he was going.
في الجملة الأخيرة يمكن أن تكون بالشكل التالي دون أن يتغير المعنى
-She couldn’t have been looking where he was going.

عصام زودي
16-09-10, 10:58 صباحاً
ملف ألأفعال الشاذة /مرتبة حسب النطق
IRREGULAR VERBS

V1 V2 V3
begin began begun
drink drank drunk
ring rang rung
run ran run
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
swim swam swum
dig dug dug
hang hung hung
stick stuck stuck
break broke broken
choose chose chosen
freeze froze frozen
steal stole stolen
speak spoke spoken
wake woke woken
tear tore torn
wear wore worn
dream dreamt dreamt
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
keep kept kept
lead led led
leave left left
mean meant meant
read read read
sleep slept slept
blow blew blown
grow grew grown
know knew known
throw threw thrown
fly flew flown
bring brought brought
buy bought bought
fight fought fought
think thought thought
catch caught caught
teach taught taught
drive drove driven
ride rode ridden
rise rose risen
write wrote written
burst burst burst
cost cost cost
V1 V2 V3
hit hit hit
hurt hurt hurt
cut Cut cut
put put put
set set set
shut shut shut
spread spread spread
hurt hurt hurt
lend lent lent
send sent sent
spend spent spent
find found found
wind wound wound
sell sold sold
tell told told
bite bit bitten
hide hid hidden
take took taken
mistake mistook mistaken
give gave given
forgive forgave forgiven
beat beat beaten
build built built
burn burnt burnt
come came come
do/does did done
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
forget forgot forgotten
get got got
go went gone
have/has had had
hear heard heard
say said said
shoot shot shot
pay paid paid
make made made
light lit lit
learn learnt learnt
lose lost lost
stand stood stood
understand understood understood
make made made

عصام زودي
17-09-10, 02:10 مساء
هذا الدرس يقدم لك كل الأزمنة ضمن الشكل القواعدي+مثال+جملة أو جملتين تحلهم بتقليد المثال والشكل

عصام زودي
17-09-10, 08:13 مساء
كلمات تشكل التباس للمتكلم
1. What is its color? It's green. It's been a long, long time.
These come first, out of alphabetical order, because they're the champs, surely the most often confused words in English! Remember, it's means it is or it has! Use its to show possession.
2. The abhorrent individual was spurned by his fellow citizens because of his aberrant behavior.
3. With her speaking skills, she has the ability to fill the auditorium to its capacity.
4. The minister adjured his wayward congregation to abjure the sins of the flesh.
5. I would accept your excuse, except the part about losing the watch.
6. The number of students who wanted access to the computer labs was in excess of two hundred.
7. The government would often adopt policies that required people to adapt to a harsh regime.
8. The trouble with many adolescents is that they never seem to grow out of adolescence.
9. I need your advice. Please advise me on this.
10. The teacher's aide more than once came to the aid of her supervisor. [AIDS, the acronym for Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome, is spelled in all caps.]
11. She was confused, displaying ambivalent feelings about the ambiguous situation they'd gotten into.
12. Sometimes it seems more shocking to be amoral than to be immoral .
13. After we have the jeweler appraise the diamond, we will apprise you of its value.
14. As (as opposed to like) — see like
15. When they got the assent of the weather bureau, they allowed the enormous balloon to begin its ascent. [N.B. The word accent — what we hear in one's speech — has no "s."]
16. Aural — see oral
17. Awake — see wake
18. I am averse to traveling in such adverse weather conditions.
19. Afflict — see inflict
20. We need a lot (two words!) of money. She will allot funds according to need.
21. Are you all ready already, or do we have to wait for you?
22. She would often allude to her childhood, when she would elude her brothers in a game of hide-and-seek.
23. Allusion — see illusion
24. In mock debates, we used to alternate sides, taking alternative positions.
25. Government agencies tried to alleviate the effects of the depression. They attempted to ameliorate the job-seeking process.
26. With amiable people like the Durwitzes, it's not unusual to have an amicable divorce.
27. Among — see between
28. The amount of money you make in a year depends on the number of deals you close.
29. I am annoyed that my bad back seems to be aggravated by tension. [To aggravate means to make something worse which is already bad. I cannot be aggravated, but my injury can be.]
30. It's difficult to anticipate [prepare oneself for] things that one doesn't expect.

31. Juan is apt to do something silly, something that will likely get him in trouble, or even something that he may be liable for in a court of law.
32. She wanted a good lawyer, so I told her about my attorney.
33. I'll be back in a while. Can you wait awhile? (Awhile [one word] is an adverb that can modify a verb.)
34. He told a funny anecdote about mixing up his soda with the snake-bite antidote.
35. The eager audience awaited the anxious, sweating performer.
36. She felt bad about his behaving badly at the conference. [Use the adjective form with linking verbs.]
37. The man who sings bass in the choir once played third base for the New York Yankees and is also an expert bass fisherman.
38. She was afraid of him after seeing his bizarre behavior at the county's annual bazaar.
39. Besides my unphotogenic aunt and uncle, there were fourteen other people standing beside the train station.
40. He has divided the money between Carlos and his daughter. He has divided the rest of his property among his three brothers. [This distinction is not as important as some people think. See the usage of both words in your dictionary.]

41. The economy seemed to slide backwards thanks to the backward government policies. ["Backward" can be either an adverb or an adjective; "backwards" can be only an adverb.]
42. The activity of troops on the other side of the border belied the ambassador's sweet-sounding entreaties for peace. (Should not be confused with "betray" or "evince." To "belie" something is not to reveal it as true but to show the apparent truth of something as being false.)
43. Avoid using words like biennial (or bimonthly/biweekly) and biannual, and say that something happens twice a year/month/week or every other year/month/week.
44. Blatant — see flagrant
45. I was so bored at the Board of Trustees meeting that I fell asleep.
46. She brought with her all the Christmas gifts she had recently bought.
47. He will break the car brake if he keeps pushing on it like that.
48. The breech of the gun slammed into his shoulder as he fired into the breach of the wall.
49. Every breath counts, so breathe deeply now.
50. The entire bridal party took a long and pleasant walk along the bridle path.
51. Bring — see take
52. Some people confuse Calvary, the place where Jesus was crucified, with the word cavalry, which describes an army component, usually on horseback (or nowadays in helicopters).
53. You may begin this exercise whenever you can get around to it. [In negative constructions, the word can can be used to express permission: You cannot go to the movies today.]
54. You cannot blame him for screaming, "Damn it, Bob! You can not do that anymore!"
55. We wore canvas shoes while we tried to canvass the entire neighborhood.
56. Capacity — see ability
57. We went over to the capitol to see the legislators. The capital of Connecticut is Hartford. The state is running out of capital.
58. If a bride wants a diamond that weighs a carat, it will cost more than a carrot or a caret.
59. The Board of Education has censured the high-school principal because he tried to censor the student newspaper.
60. The Pilgrims acted with certitude on matters of faith; others required more certainty.
61. Some people thought he was sweet and childlike in his innocence, but I always thought he was boorish and childish.
62. I chose the red balloon. Now you choose a balloon of another color.

63. The climactic moment of a lightning storm, nature's most dramatic climatic event, is a deafening roll of thunder.
64. His clothes were made of cloths of many different colors.
65. We used a coarse sandpaper, of course.


66. She complimented her sister on the way her scarf complemented her blouse.
67. Connecticut comprises eight counties. The system is constituted of twelve separate campuses. [If you say "comprised of," you've probably used the word incorrectly.]
68. She was confident that her confidant had given her good information.
69. Confounded by the instructor's ambiguous instructions, the students' problems were compounded by a lack of time to do the exam.
70. The word guts denotes one's viscera, one's intestines, but it also connotes determination, fortitude, persistence, and courage.
71. There was a terrible dinning noise coming from the dining room.
72. Since no one offered any dissent, we waited a decent interval and then began our descent to the lower floors.
73. She didn't seem conscious of the fact that her husband has no conscience.
74. Her family grew contemptuous of her contemptible behavior.
75. These continual changes in our weather seem to be related to our continuous emissions of carbon-monoxide into the atmosphere.
76. My mother will convince him that she is right. She will persuade him to keep working.
77. She decided to seek the counsel [advice] of the Dorm Council.
78. It didn't seem credible that such a creditable person would say such a horrible thing.
79. At first there was only one criterion for becoming Chairperson, but then, suddenly, the Party imposed several other criteria.
80. My favorite show, Seinfeld, is currently doing re-runs; the new episodes will begin presently. [The word presently used to mean "now," but nowadays most writers use it to mean "soon."]
81. I kept a weekly diary during those years that I worked on the dairy farm.
82. If you wish to seem demure, you will have to demur less vociferously.
83. Denote — see connote
84. Any cool dessert would taste great out here in the sandy desert.
85. The prisoner tried to devise a clever device to help him escape.
86. She thought her dog would die after it drank that bowl of blue dye.
87. For the difference between different from and different than, click HERE.
88. He went from a dilemma to a quandary.
89. The conductor seemed discomfited on the podium by the rude, discomforting behavior of the visiting pianist.
90. They kept their love affair discreet by living discrete lives. Check the Merriam-Webster's WWW Dictionary for this one.
91. You will want a disinterested [impartial] judge. An uninterested [not interested] judge, however, is a liability.
92. When asked to disassemble his old jalopy, Charles agreed, seeming to dissemble.
93. Dissent — see decent
94. Eager — see anxious
95. What effect does this have on you? How does it affect you?
96. It was part of the government's economic strategy to direct the military to purchase the most economical material available.
97. When it comes to abbreviations of Latin words or phrases (e.g., etc., et al., sic.), wise writers use them sparingly (i.e., primarily when documenting resources and then only parenthetically) or not at all. [E.g. means for example, and it is usually better to use the English phrase, for example. I.e. means that is. Because both abbreviations are almost invariably introductory modifiers, they are often followed by a comma, but some authorities say not to use the comma. Do not underline or italicize either of them.]
98. We should elect a president before he or she selects members of the cabinet.
99. How did the politicians plan to elicit these obviously illicit campaign funds without getting caught?
1. Elude — see allude
2. Emigrate — see immigrate
3. They were afraid that this eminent figure in world politics was in imminent danger of being killed.
4. She normally had great empathy for people she read about, but she had no sympathy for these boat people.
5. The enormousness of his task seemed overwhelming, and then he found he must slay a dragon known for the enormity of his evildoings.
6. He wanted to carve an epigram that he had seen used as an epigraph for his grandfather's epitaph.
7. We would like to ensure good weather for our company picnic, but our insurance company won't insure good weather with an inexpensive policy.
8. One sister liked bugs and studied entomology; the other liked words and went into etymology.
9. He especially likes coffee ice-cream. Every week, his wife buys some specially for him.
10. We use our everyday dishes every day.
11. The choirboys exulted when they discovered they were to sing before such an exalted audience.
12. Expect — see anticipate
13. The general found it expedient to blame his lieutenants for the expeditious progress of the enemy.
14. The document now makes explicit what had been only implicit in the shifty eyes of the negotiator.
15. To what extent have they searched for the extant manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address?
16. An extemporaneous speech is not the same thing as an impromptu speech.
17. Nothing seemed to faze her as she went through the adolescent phase of her life.
18. When we say a man is literally an idiot, we don't necessarily mean he has a low I.Q.; we might be exaggerating, saying he is "virtually" an idiot. If we speak figuratively, calling him a pumpkin-head, we're using the language of analogy.
19. He showed a flagrant disregard for public morals in his blatant errors of mismanagement.
20. Flammable — see inflammable
21. The football players seemed to flout the referees and continued to brazenly flaunt their silly, arrogant routine every time they scored.
22. The horse-owners began to flounder about in the stands when they saw their horse founder right at the starting gate. [A flounder is a fish. A founder (noun) is what we call someone who establishes an institution (a church or community, for example). That person, we could say, has founded something (not to be confused with the past tense of to find: "She found the flashlight.")]
23. She had a foreboding that she was about to meet up with her forbidding father.
24. It was a foregone conclusion that the team would forgo all post-season tournaments..
25. The missionaries founded a church in an area they found congenial to their beliefs.
26. I can run farther than you, but let's discuss that further after the race.

27. She has fewer complaints, but she has less energy.
28. Formerly, we met formally to discuss these matters.

The soldiers of the fourth regiment bravely went forth.
29. The prosecutor began to gibe the witness when the details of his story did not jibe with his previous testimony. [N.B. "Jive" (jargon of jazz musicians, street talk) is not a synonym for "jibe."]
30. The guerilla soldiers eventually got used to living among the gorillas in the jungle.
31. She's a good swimmer; she swims well. Aren't you feeling well?
32. The grizzled old hunter chewed on a gristly piece of meat and told a grisly tale of being mauled by grizzly bears.
33. A portrait of the last criminal to be hanged in Arizona was hung on her bedroom wall.
34. They were certainly hardy lads and they worked up a hearty appetite on their twenty-mile hike.
35. Food can be called healthful if it helps us lead healthy lives.
36. The movie's heroine died of an overdose of heroin.
37. The publication of Morrison's first historical novel proved to be a historic event.
38. The trouble with the economy is that hordes of people are starting to hoard their money.
39. A homonym is one of two or more words spelled and pronounced alike but different in meaning (as the noun quail and the verb quail). A homophone is one of two or more words pronounced alike but different in meaning or derivation or spelling (as the words to, too, and two). And, incidentally, a homograph is one of two or more words spelled alike but different in meaning or derivation or pronunciation (as the bow of a ship, a bow and arrow). The important distinction, then, is that words like the verb obJECT and the noun OBject are homographs but not homonyms — because they're not pronounced alike.
40. In less than an hour, the voters in our town are going to vote for us.
41. In preparing for his most spectacular illusion, the magician made an allusion to the magic of Houdini.
42. They have immigrated to this city from all over eastern Europe; later on, they may decide to emigrate elsewhere.
43. Immoral — see amoral
44. Impromptu — see extemporaneous
45. His language implies a prejudice against Native Americans; you can infer that from certain passages in his latest speech. [Check the Merriam-Webster's online dictionary before getting too excited over this distinction.]
46. The incidence of incidents involving racist slurs has become intolerable.
47. This incipient revolution seems to be based on the most stupid and insipid causes.
48. He was incredulous that his brother could perform such incredible feats on the parallel bars.
49. The scientists produced an indeterminate study concerning the indeterminable number of stars in the universe.

عصام زودي
18-09-10, 09:25 صباحاً
Flour / Flower
Son / Sun
Red / Read( v3)
Hare / Hair
Leek / Leak
Week / Weak
Sea / See
Bear / Bare
Dear / Deer
Knight / Night
Horse Hoarse
Tea / Tee
Reign / Rain
Dawn
Sole / Soul
Boy / Buoy
Air / Heir
Cell / Sell
Beech / Beach
Steel / Steal
Stair / Stare
Bored / Board
Buy By Bye
Cite Sight Site
Ewe (female sheep) You Yew
For Fore Four
Heard Herd Hurd
There Their They're
To Too Two
Weather Wether Whether
Ad Add
Adherence Adherents
Aid Aide
Ail Ale
Allowed Aloud
All Awl (a sharp pointed tool)
Allot A Lot (or Alot)
Allar Alter
Ante- Anti-
Antecedence Antecedents
Arc Ark
Assistance Assistants
Ate Eight
Attendance Attendants
Bail Bale
Bare Bear
Base Bass
Bases Basis
Be Bee
Beat Beet
Berry Bury
Berth Birth
Billed Build
Blew Blue
Bloc Block
Bored Board
Bolder Boulder
Born Borne
Boy Bouy
Brake Break
Bread Bred
Bridal Bridle
Broach Brooch
Bouillon Bullion
Cache Cash
Call Cool
Callous Callus
Canvas Canvass
Cede Seed
Ceiling Sealing
Cell Sell
Cellar Seller
Cereal Serial
Cession Session
Chews Choose
Chord Cord
Chute Shoot
Click Clique
Creak Creek
Flew Flu
Hi High
Knight Night
Knot Not
Know No
Knows Nose
Made Maid
Missed Mist
One Won
Oar Or
Ode Owed
Paw Pour
Plain Plane
Pray Prey
Read Reed
Review Revue
Scent Sent
Sea See
Sew So
Shore Sure
Straight Strait
Tare Tear
Threw Through
Toe Tow
Told Tolled
Wait Weight
Waist Waste
Way Weigh

عصام زودي
19-10-10, 08:18 صباحاً
استخدم الحاضر البسيط مع الظروف التالية:
S+ v1+……………………..
Always-sometimes-usually-often-rarely-generally-occasionally-regularly-everyday. Every……..this time of the year- once a ……. Twice a …..
استخدم الحاضر البسيط مع الأفعال التالية بغض النظر عن ظروف المستمر
Believe-know-love-like-prefer-agree-disagree-mean-need-cost-understand-forget-sound-seem -see-hear-enjoy +v+ing
استخدم الحاضر البسيط مع الأفعال التالية:
Taste+ adj
Think that
Think+Subject
Feel that
Have (possess)
Smell + adj
Look+ adj
Enjoy+v+ing

استخدم الحاضر المستمر مع الظروف التالية:
Am/is/are + v +ing
Now –at the moment- at present – today –
Look ! –Listen!
استخدم الحاضر المستمر مع الأفعال التالية:
Taste+ noun
Think about
Feel+ adjective
Have بمعنى ( eat –drink-suffer-face-take-)
Smell +n
Look at
Look for
Enjoy +n
استخدم الحاضر التام
Have/has+V3
لعمل بدأ ولم ينته بعد. دلائله
Sinceقبل التواريخ المحددة وإذا أتى بعدها الماضي البسيط
For قبل مدة من الوقت
لعمل متكرر لكنه غير اعتيادي
Many times /several times /twice /two times
لعمل ترى نتائجه الحالية. دلائله
Because بعدها حاضر تام إذا كان قبلها حاضر بسيط
So قبلها حاضر تام إذا كان بعدها حاضر بسيط
لعمل انتهى للتو. دلائله
Already/ just غالبا بين شطري الزمن
مع الظروف التالية:
So far في آخر الجملة
Yet في آخر الجملة المنفية والاستفهامية
Never للنفي بين شطري الزمن
ever للسؤال بين شطري الزمن

recently في آخر الجملة أو أولها
How long / as long as
اختر الصفة بعد الفعل الساكن:
Look – seem – smell – taste- sound- seem – am /is /are/was /were/
The foods smells(great-greatly).
اختر الظرف بعد الفعل الحركي:
Look at- sleep –speak – etc..
He speaks Arabic ( fluent- fluently).

I often read a book about the Arab World.
We eat a lot about of fish every week.
I regularly do some work.
My grandfather come over every Friday.
It doesn't rain in the Sahara Desert.
We always prepare for expeditions.
I have wanted to be a traveler since I was a child.
I sometimes live with local people or tribes.
We are having
dinner now.
We have taken an expedition for the last five years.
How long have you lived there?
Polar tourism has grown since the 1980s.
I have been interested in Syria all my life.
I have lived in the UK for 20 years.
Haven't you finished your homework yet?
You are working at the moment.
Have you ever been to the cinema with Omar?
I have not used this computer so I do not know what to do
I have never lived abroad.
I have not lived abroad yet.
I have lived abroad before.
I have just come into the classroom.
The coffee tastes awful.
We have breakfast every morning
We are having breakfast at the moment.
I feel that you are good.
I am feeling tired at the moment.
I always have a shower in the morning.
I am having a shower now.
I prefer Syrian food to Italian

استخدم الماضي البسيط مع الظروف التالية:
S +V2+……………………………
Yesterday-the day before-last week- ago-in 2000- in May-in………تاريخ محدد سابق

استخدم الماضي البسيط مع الظروف التالية في حال وجود فعل ماضي بسيط آخر:
Always-sometimes-usually-often-rarely-generally-occasionally-regularly-everyday. Every……..this time of the year- once a ……. Twice a …..
استخدم الماضي التام لعمل سبق عمل آخر في الماضي
S+ had+V3+……………………..
Beforeبعدها ماضي بسيط
Before/earlier الجملة قبلها ماضي تام
After شبه الجملة حاضر تام
Becauseبعدها ماضي تام وقبلها ماضي بسيط
As بعدها ماضي تام وقبلها ماضي بسيط
Soقبلها ماضي تام وبعدها ماضي بسيط
when قبلها ماضي تام وبعدها ماضي بسيط
Untilقبلها ماضي تام بعدها ماضي بسيط/
Although/even though بعدها ماضي تام
By the time /as soon as بعدها ماضي تام
بعض ظروف الحاضر التام تأتي مع الماضي التام شرط أن يتواجد في الجملة ماضي بسيط مثل:
Already/just/never/ever/yet/because/so
Nobody believed him because he (lie) before.
The students (leave) the class when the teacher came in.
I (finish) so I left the exam.
She had left when I (arrive).
By the time the doctor saw me, my arm (swell).

Used to /did not use to / did +S + use to………..?
اعتاد على
يستخدم هذا الفعل في الماضي فقط بهذا الشكل لعمل كان اعتياديا في الماضي والآن لا وجود له.
We used to live in a small flat but last year we bought a house.
Nairobi did not use to have a big airport.
I didn’t use to like fish but now I love it.
لا يستخدم هذا الفعل لعمل حدث لمرة أو أكثر في الماضي.
I was a builder for two years.
He wrote to me four years and then stopped.
استخدم الماضي المستمر لعمل كان يشغل حيزا من الوقت / كان مستمرا وتخلله عمل اعتراضي
I was leaving the shop when I saw a picture.
He was sleeping under a tree when the storm began.
يترافق الماضي المستمر مع ماضي مستمر آخر. العملان متوازيان غير متقاطعان
While he was reading a book, my brothers were having fun.
قد يستخدم الماضي المستمر مع ظروف الماضي البسيط إذا أردنا التأكيد على استمرارية العمل في تلك الفترة من الوقت
We were swimming yesterday morning.
أفعال يأتي بعدها
مثل Verb+ing
Love –like- prefer-enjoy- hate-can't stand-dislike
أفعال يأتي بعدها
مثل to+ verb0
'd Love –'d like- 'd prefer-'d enjoy- quite
Collocations:
Spend time spend money
Do work do an exam
Keep tidy keep the change
Make an excuse make money
Make friends a mistake
Catch a bus catch cold
Take photos take an exam
Take an interest in
الحاضر التام المستمر
S+have/has+V+ing…………………………
استخدم الحاضر التام المستمر لعمل مطول أو نشاط متكرر لفترة من الزمن.
Every day this week you have been going for a ride on your bike.
They have been waiting for the bus since three o'clock.
استخدم الحاضر التام المستمر لعمل له نتائجه الحالية .
Nadia looks ill. She has not been taking her medicine.
لا تستخدم الحاضر التام المستمر مع الأفعال الساكنة.
Believe-know-love-like-prefer-agree-disagree-mean-need-cost-understand-forget-sound-seem -see-hear
The
قبل المفرد والجمع إذا ذكر للمرة الثانية في الجملة.
I saw a man talking. The man looked angry.
للتخصيص والشيء المعروف للسامع.
Welsh is spoken in the principality of Wales.
Open the window!
قبل مجموعات الجزر والسلاسل الجبلية والبحار والمحيطات والدول المكونة من أكثر من مقاطعة أو ولاية
The Netherlands- The Atlantic- The Alps- The Nile
عندما نتحدث عن فصيلة أو اختراع ما قبل الاسم المفرد لتدل على المجموعة بأكملها.
The whale- The horse- The cat – The computer- The radio
قبل الصفة لنتحدث عن المجموعة بأكملها
The poor- The rich –The homeless- The young The adult
مع الآلات الموسيقية / بقصد العزف.
Play the guitar – Play the drums
قبل صيغة المقارنة العليا.
The highest – The longest – One of the most…….. One of the worst………… The best
The
لا تستخدم قبل أسماء الدول والعواصم والقارات والمدن والجبال المفردة والمطارات والمحطات والشوارع
Syria –Aleppo- Mount Everest- Corsica –Lake Nasser
عندما نتحدث عن شيء بشكل عام.
Water is necessary for life
لا تستخدم قبل أسماء الوجبات .
Have dinner/lunch/breakfast……..
لا تستخدم قبل بعض الأسماء التي لنا بها ارتباط مباشر كعمل أو إقامة أو عبادة .
Go to school. Go home . in hospital. Go to church.
A/An
قبل المفرد النكرة الذي يبدأ بحرف ساكن . (a)
A pen- a car- a pupil -a horse
قبل المفرد النكرة الذي يبدأ بحرف صوتي. (an )
An apple an answer- an hour – an eagle- an uncle
أحيانا علينا أن ننتبه إلى الحرف الأول وخاصة الحرفين
إذا لفظا ( أ ) تعامل معاملة الصوتي (h-u)
An hour- an honest man – an uncle
لا تستخدم قبل بعض الأسماء التي لنا بها ارتباط مباشر كعمل أو إقامة أو عبادة .
Go to school. Go home . in hospital. Go to church.
مع بعض التراكيب مثل
One time a day-once a day-twice a year…..
What a pity –such a
لا تستخدم قبل الاسم المجرد والغير معدود
Coffee- water – milk- freedom- love
عندما نذكر شيء للمرة الأولى
I saw a man climbing the tree.
أسماء غير معدودة تعامل معاملة المفرد مع الفعل لا تأخذ إلا شكلها الحالي مثل
Adviceنصيحة luggage أمتعة equipment معدات information معلومات money المال news أخبار
يمكن أن نتعامل معهم على الشكل التالي
Some /any / Advice- luggage - equipment - information - money - news .
المعدود على الشكل التالي
A piece of news /luggage/homework/furniture

Two pieces of news /luggage/homework/furniture

عصام زودي
23-11-10, 05:19 مساء
CONDITIONALS
ZERO CONDITIONALS: GENERAL TRUTHS/CAUSE AND EFFECT
In Type 0 conditionals, other conjunctions may be used in the place of "if": as long as, provided that, unless, when.

If +S + V1+………. , S + V1+…………………
-If you eat too much, you get fat.
-If you heat water, it boils.
-When you heat water, it boils.

S + V1+…………… If +S + V1+…………..
-You get fat if you eat too much.
-Water boils if you heat it.
-Water boils when you heat it.

V0+………….. and S + V1+…………………
-Heat water and it boils.
-Insult people and they get mad.
-Sit in the sun too long and you get burned.
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!
FIRST CONDITIONALS: PROBABLE OR OPEN CONDITIONS
They are used to describe things that are considered true or probable, but are a matter of opinion. In addition to "if", other conjunctions can be used in Type 1 conditionals: as long as, provided that, supposing, unless, whether.

If +S + V1+………. , S + will + V0+…………………
-If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will go to the beach.
-If we don't hurry, we will be late.
-If you don't eat your spinach, you will not grow big and strong.

S + will + V0+………………… If +S + V1+……….
We will go to the beach if the weather is nice tomorrow.
We will be late if we don't hurry.
You will not grow big and strong if you don't eat your spinach.

V0 +………. or +S + will + V0+…………………
-Hurry or we will be late.
-Eat your spinach or you will not grow big and strong.

V0 +………. or +do not + V0+…………………
-Say something nice or don't say anything at all.

If +S + V1+………. , S + will + V0+…………………
-If you don't succeed, try, try again.
-If you cannot say something nice about someone, don't say anything at all.

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!

SECOND CONDITIONALS: UNREAL CONDITIONS -- PRESENT AND FUTURE
We use Type 2 Conditionals to express unreal conditions in the present or future.
The use of past tense does not indicate past time. The modal verbs used
in the main clause are restricted by the unreal meaning of the conditional.
You can use: would, would have to, would be able to, could

All forms of "be" in the conditional clause become "were" in Type 2 conditionals:
If I were rich
If you were rich
If he were rich

However, many people use the simple past tense of "be" in the conditional clause.
If I was rich
If you were rich
If he was rich

If +S + V2+………. , S + would + V0+…………………
-If he didn't like pasta, he wouldn't live in Italy.
-If I saw Clint Eastwood, I would ask for his autograph.
-If she could swim, she wouldn't be afraid of the water.

S + would + V0+………………… if +S + V2+……….
-We wouldn't ask if we knew the answer.
-I could travel more often if I were rich.
-They would go to the movies more often if they had time.
-Would you mind if I asked you a personal question?
-I wouldn't do that if I were you.
-If wishes were pennies, we'd all be rich.
EXAMPLES:
-I wish it were Friday.
-I wish you wouldn't talk behind my back.
-I wish I spoke better English.
-I'd rather you didn't smoke.
-I'd rather you paid me in cash.
-It's time we left the party.
-It's time you found a job.
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! !!!

THIRD CONDITIONALS: PAST UNREAL CONDITIONS
Third conditionals represent unreal conditions in the past, that is, things that did not happen or did not exist.

If +S + had+V3+………. , S + would +have+ V3+…………………
-If you had studied harder, you would have passed the exam.
-If I had seen you at the party, I would certainly have said "hello".
-If he had understood the directions, he would not have gotten lost.

S + would +have+ V3+………………… if +S + had+V3+……….
-They wouldn't have treated us badly if we hadn't been foreigners.
-I would certainly have said "hello". if I had seen you at the party

had +S + V3+………. , S + would +have+ V3+…………………
-Had you studied harder, you would have passed the exam.
-Had we not been foreigners, they wouldn't have treated us so badly.
-Had I seen you at the party, I would certainly have said "hello".

عصام زودي
07-12-10, 07:12 مساء
Words that go together
do the housework
do work
do jobs
do repairs
do a haircut
do exercise
do judo
do business
do the washing up
do gymnastics
---------------------
collect stamps
collect badges
collect coins
---------------
play chess
play music
play a computer game
take photos
-----------------
make dinner
make a mess
make models
make clothes
make money
make speeches
make progress
----------------
Raise money for…
raise crops
---------------------
organize boycotts
organize campaigns
organize demonstration
draw attention
break records
come a long way
feel sorry for
give talks
say goodbye
do exams
-----------------
have chicken
have problems
have a shower
have a bath
have a rest
have a snack
have food
have dinner
have meals
have lunch
have breakfast
have a talk
have an experience
have a good time
have an ice cream
have an idea
have tea
keep the station clean
keep fit
go spacewalking
go outside
go swimming
go shopping
go climbing
go cycling
go jogging
go on class excursions
spend S.P 200
spend thirty minutes
Spend the morning in….
wear the make-up
Expressions without articles
at home
at school
go to bed
go to work
go home
have dinner
have breakfast
have lunch
by car
by bus
by plane
in hospital
Expressions with the
at the station
to the cinema
play the piano
in the evening
in the morning
in the afternoon
the sun
the earth
the Thames
the Atlantic
the Alps
the capital
Expressions with a/an:
a lot
a lot of
a bit
a piece of
twice a day
Two times a …….
Three times a ……
60 km an hour
have a bath
have a shower
have a rest
have a snack
a few
a few of
a little
a little of
المصدر : منتديات برشين

ميرا أحمد
23-01-11, 07:08 مساء
شكرا أستاذ عصام على الموضوع . ياريت تكتر أمثلة ياريت
Please!
1111111111121212

ميرا أحمد
03-02-11, 07:58 صباحاً
مرفق شكل الأزمنة .
أتمنى التوفيق للجميع

جوني وسوف
03-02-11, 08:10 صباحاً
الله يعطيكي الف عافة ميرا على كل مشاركاتك ومواضيعك المفيدة ..شكرا ميرا 1111111111121212

عصام زودي
04-02-11, 06:25 مساء
شكرا آنسة ميرا ع المشاركة المفيدة
n_44

عصام زودي
09-03-11, 06:22 صباحاً
As sly as a fox
As quiet as a mouse
As wise as an owl
As clever as a fox
As wiley as a coyote
As cute as a button
As pretty as a picture
As soft as a baby's behind
As hard as a rock
As dumb as rocks
As brave as a lion
As noisy as a herd of elephants
As pure as the driven snow
As white as the driven snow
As black as night
As red as a tomato
As graceful as a swan
As poor as a church mouse
As slow as molasis in January
As fast/quick as lightning
As colorful as a rainbow
As playful as a kitten
As dead as a door nail
As pale as a ghost
As skinny as a rai
As fat as a cow
As hungry as a hippo
As cool as a cat
As sick as a dog
As plain as day
As fake as a three-dollar bill
As crooked as a politician
As happy as a lark
As naked as a jay bird
As blind as a bat
As strong as a horse
As dumb as an ox
As tough as nails
As harmless as a dove
As stubborn as a mule
As busy as a bee

عصام زودي
08-04-11, 07:39 مساء
سي -c+ e i y
Centre مركز
cell زنزانة خلية
service خدمة
city مدينة
civil مدني
bicycle دراجة هوائية
cypress شجرة السرو
fancy يتوهم يتخيل منمق يحب يميل إلى
-c+باقي الأحرف الأبجدية k
Custom عادة عرف
comic مضحك هزلي
crazy مجنون معتوه مهووس
convince يقنع
Clubنادي
cave كهف
- G + e i y جgenerous كريم
germs جراثيم
huge ضخم
genius عبقري
giant عملاق مارد
magic سحر سحري
giraffe زرافة
gerund المصدر الصريح
genitive المضاف إليه
geometry الهندسة
gypsy غجر غجري
gymnast لاعب الجمباز
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
Getيحصل على يصل
girl فتاة
give يعطي
- G +باقي الأحرف الأبجدية كه المصرية
Gum لثة صمغ علكة
gun بندقية مسدس
tongue لسان لغة
rugبساط سجادة
group مجموعة زمرة جماعة
gang عصابة
God الله
gold ذهب
gloves قفازات
5- Tion شن
generation جيل توليد إنتاج
fiction أو رواية خيالية قصة
translation ترجمة تحريرية
auction مزاد علني
condition ظرف حالة شرط
information معلومات
option خيار حرية الاختيار
station محطة
population عدد السكان
- نلفظ sion بلفظ شن إذا سُبقت بحرف ساكن
Comprehension القدرة على الفهم استيعاب
compassion شفقة رحمة عطف
expansion توسع انتشار
cession التخلي أو التنازل عن شيء
session جلسة
version ترجمة نسخة معدلة من رواية
vension لحم الغزال
tension توتر قلق
pension راتب التقاعد
apprehension تخوف
expression تعبير إيضاح
- نلفظ sion بلفظ ﭼن إذا سُبقت بحرف صوتي ae i ou
Fusion خلط مزج دمج
occasion مناسبة فرصة ملائمة
television التلفاز الرائي
illusion وهم خداع
conclusion الخاتمة
provision احتياط مؤن


- tu du ch تش - du لا تلفظ ش بل دج اي dʒ في الأمثلة الواردة.

Congratulations مبروك تهانينا
gesture إشارة إيماءة
picture صورة
lecture محاضرة
statue تمثال
venture مجازفة يجازف
graduate يتخرج
gratitude شكر عرفان بالجميل
education تربية تعليم ثقافة
teach يعلم
choose يختار
catch يمسك ب
ـ charming ساحر جذاب فاتن
machine آلة
charity أحسان مؤسسة خيرية
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
Chrome معدن كروم
Christian مسيحي
xion كشن
Complexion بشرة مظهر
crucifixion صَلب شخص أو شيء

- نلفظ gh بلفظ كه المصرية في أول الكلمة
ghost شبح روح طيف
ghastly شاحب كالموتى مروع فظيع
نلفظ gh بلفظ ف في أخر الكلمة laugh يضحك
rough قاسي شرس وعر
enough كافٍ
cough يسعل
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
sigh يتنهد
high عالي
plough يحرث محراث
though رغم أن
thorough شامل
- لا نلفظ gh في وسط الكلمة
sight مشهد منظر بصر رؤية
fight يقاتل يناضل يحارب يتشاجر
tight محكم مشدود
weight وزن
night ليل
- نلفظ th بلفظ z في أول الكلمة إذا كانا متبوعين بـ aieo
that ذلك ذاك تلك
this هذا هذه
these هؤلاء
those أولئك
though بالرغم من
- نلفظ th بلفظ ث في أول الكلمة أحياناً thorn شوكة
third ثالث
thought فكر
think يعتقد يفكر
thing شيء
thin نحيف
thick سميك ثخين
thirsty عطشان
- نلفظ th بلفظ ث قبل r
throw يرمي
throat حنجرة
thriller رواية مثيرة
- نلفظ th بلفظ z بين حرفين صوتيين
- th لا تلفظ z بل ذ
together معاً
leather جلد
weather طقس
feather ريشة الطائر
bother يزعج يضايق
- نلفظ th بلفظ ث في آخر الكلمة
teeth أسنان
myth أسطورة
path ممر طريق
death موت
mouth فم
faith إيمان ثقة
wealth ثروة
- نلفظ su بلفظ ش إذا كانا مسبوقين بحرف ساكن
tissue نسيج غشاء منديل ورق
assure يطمئن يؤكد
pressure ضغط
- نلفظ su بلفظ ﭼـ إذا كانا مسبوقين بحرف صوتي
exposure تعرض إظهار
composure هدوء ذهني ضبط النفس
casual غير مبالٍ لباس غير رسمي
pleasure سرور سعادة
treasure كنز
leisure وقت الفراغ

- Cea cia cie tia tie sh ciou xiou sia ش
ocean محيط
special خاص مميز
social اجتماعي
magician ساحر مشعوذ
Christian مسيحي
partial جزئي
martial حربي عسكري
Egyptian مصري
patient صبور مريض
precious ثمين نفيس
vicious شرير أثيم شرس حقود
conscious واعٍ مدرك شاعر
Persian الفارسي
Russian الروسي
Asian الأسيوي
anxious قلق متوتر مضطرب
ancient قديم
short-lived قصير الأجل
showroom صالة العرض
shopping mall مجمع تسوق
- لا نلفظ p قبل n
pneumatic هوائي
pneumonia التهاب رئوي
- لا تلفظ t بعد s
pestle مدقه يد الهاون
whistle صفارة يصفر
castle قلعة
thistle شوك الجمال
nestle يحتضن
wrestling مصارعة حرة
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
pistol مسدس
thirsty عطشان
نلفظ ph بلفظ ف في أول الكلمة
ph تلفظ على شكل ف في الكلمات الواردة بدون تحديد لموقعها في الكلمة سواء في أولها وسطها أو في آخرها.photograph صورة طبوغرافية
telephone هاتف
pharmacy صيدلية
phase مرحلة
phrase عبارة
orphan يتيم
philosophy الفلسفة
physics الفيزياء
geography الجغرافية
blasphemy كفر إلحاد
- لا نلفظ b بعد m
plumber سباك
bomb قنبلة يفجر
comb مشط يمشط
tomb قبر
thumb إبهام
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
humble متواضع
symbolرمز
- لفظ d قبل g في كل الكلمات الواردة.والقاعدةedge حافة
knowledge المعرفة
bridge جسر
fridge ثلاجة
لا نلفظ k قبل n
know يعرف
knock يطرق
knife سكين
Kneelيركع
knight فارس
- لا نلفظ w قبل r
wrong خطأ خاطئ
write يكتب
wrist معصم
wrestler لاعب المصارعة الحرة
wrap يلف
wreck حطام يحطم

لا نلفظ g قبل n
foreign أجنبي
sign آية إشارة لافتة يوقع
design يصمم
resign يستقيل
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
significant هام
signature توقيع
لا نلفظ L قبل K
walk يمشي
talk يتحدث
folk شعبي
caulk يسد الشقوق بين الألواح
chalk طبشور
لفظ d قبل g في كل الكلمات الواردة.والقاعدة
adjective صفة
adjoining ملاصق
adjust يعدل يضبط
adjacent مجاور

لا نلفظ h بعد w
what ما ماذا
why لماذا
where أين
The White House البيت الأبيض
whisper همس يهمس
whip سوط يضرب السوط

لا نلفظ n بعد m
damn يلعن يذم
Autumn الخريف
column عمود /طابور

لا نلفظ p قبل s
psychiatrist طبيب نفساني
psychology علم النفس
psychopath شخص مضطرب عقلياً

لا نلفظ e قبل u
تلفظ e على شكل ي في الكلمات الواردة.
euphoria نشوة ابتهاج
Europe أوربا
euro عملة يورو

نلفظ ck بلفظ k
black اللون الأسود
luck الحظ
rack رف
peacock طاووس
occupation مهنة إقامة احتلال
accomplish ينجز
according to وفقاً لـ طبقاً لـ

نلفظ الأحرف المضاعفة بشدة
massive ضخم كبير
toss يقذف
account حساب
occur يحدث يقع

نلفظ s بلفظه الأبجدي بعد الأحرف الساكنة الغير اهتزازية مثل p t k
parks الحدائق العامة
maps الخرائط
rats جرذان
نلفظ s بلفظ z بعد الأحرف الساكنة الاهتزازية مثل b d g
cabs سيارات الأجرة عربات hands الأيدي bags الحقائب
نلفظ s بلفظ z بين حرفين صوتيين

rose وردة lose يفقد يخسر يضيع hose نبريش خرطوم الماء



[ a e i o u ]
الحرف الصوتي A :
1- نلفظ a بلفظه الأبجدي إذا توسط حرفاً ساكناً بين a والحرف الأخير e من الكلمة
tale حكاية
lake بحيرة
hate يكره
shade ظل يظلل
chase يطارد
share يشارك حصة نصيب

نلفظ a بلفظ اَ إذا توسط بين حرفيين ساكنين
- th لا تلفظ z بل ذ
bank مصرف
bat خفاش
chat مسامرة محادثة يغازل يتودد إلى
match مباراة / يطابق / عود كبريت / نظير ينسجم مع يضاهي
shack كوخ
drama مسرحية
café مقهى

نلفظ a بلفظ o إذا جاء قبل L و LL
although رغم أن
false خاطئ مزيف
bald أصلع
salt ملح
ball كرة
call مكالمة يتصل
fall فصل الخريف يسقط
wall جدار
hall قاعة
tall طويل
all كل جميع
mall مجمع
wallet محفظة نقود
walnut جوز
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
talent موهبة
gallant شجاع
salute تحية عسكرية
gallon غالون
shall سوف
gala احتفال

نلفظ a بلفظه الأبجدي في أخر الكلمة Mecca مكة المكرمة
data معطيات بيانات
pasta عجينة
الحرف الصوتي E :نلفظ e بلفظه الأبجدي في أول الكلمة
economy اقتصاد
effort جهد
elegant أنيق
empty فارغ
enquire يستفسر يستعلم
examine يفحص يمتحن

نلفظ e بلفظ أ ْ ألف ساكنة إذا توسط بين حرفين ساكنين
net شبكة
rent أجرة يستأجر
hen دجاج send يرسل
hell جهنم
shell قذيفة صدفة قشرة
gentle لطيف
shelter ملجأ مأوى
penance عقاب
mercy الرحمة
jet طائرة نفاثة
depth عمق
celebrity شخص مشهور

لا نلفظ e في نهاية الكلمة
sake مصلحة /منفعة
blame يلوم
freeze يجمد يتجمد
price سعر ثمن يسعر
save ينقذ يحفظ يوفر يدخر
dazzle يبهر يفتن
الحرف الصوتي I :

نلفظ i بلفظه الأبجدي إذا توسط حرفاً ساكناً بينه وبين الحرف الأخير e من الكلمة
wide عريض
side جانب طرف
kite طائرة ورقية
write يكتب
slide ينزلق
cite يستشهد بقول
bite يعض
lime شجرة الزيزفون كلس
pine شجرة الصنوبر
wine خمر
site موقع

نلفظ i بلفظ e إذا توسط بين حرفين ساكنين bitter مر
chin ذقن
thin نحيف
sip يرشف
sinner خاطئ آثم مذنب شرير
twin توأم
wing جناح

نلفظ i بلفظ e في أول الكلمة independent مستقل
ill مريض
idiom مصطلح
idiot أبله غبي
if إذا لو
ignorant جاهل
illiterate أمُيٍٍٍ
imagine يتخيل يتصور
income دخل إيراد
index فهرس

نلفظ i أحيانا بلفظ آي في أول الكلمة ice جليد
icon أيقونة رمز
idea فكرة
ideal مثالي
identity card الهوية الشخصية
idle عاطل كسول
ideology مذهب عقيدة
idol وثن صنم

الحرف الصوتي o :
نلفظ o بلفظه الأبجدي في أول الكلمة
open يفتح مفتوح
oral شفهي
oracle الوحي الإلهي
ornament زخرفة زينة
orange البرتقال
olive الزيتون
oven فرن
orphan يتيم
order يرتب ترتيب ينظم نظام يأمر أمر
onion بصل
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
one واحد
once ذات مرة مرة واحدة

نلفظ o بلفظ اَ إذا توسط بين الحرفين الساكنين m..n
among بين أكثر من شخصين أو شيئين
Monday يوم الاثنين
money نقود
month شهر
monkey القرد

نلفظ o بلفظه الأبجدي في آخر الكلمة
photo صورة
radio مذياع
tomato طماطم
potato بطاطا
veto حق النقض

الحرف الصوتي u :

نلفظ u بلفظ اَ في أول الكلمة
up-to-date عصري حديث
umbrella مظلة
uncle خال عم زوج الخالة زوج العمة
utter ينطق يتفوه بـ كامل
ultimate جوهري نهائي
upset يزعج ينزعج منزعج
understand يفهم under تحت
باستثناء بعض الكلمات :
unify يوحد
unity وحدة
unit وحدة
unite يوحد
union وحدة اتحاد
universal عام عالمي
university جامعة
use يستخدم استخدام
usage استخدام
useful مفيد نافع
utilities المرافق العامة
usually عادةً
uniform لباس رسمي موحد

نلفظ u بلفظ اَ إذا توسط بين حرفين ساكنين
mummy مومياء ماما
luck الحظ
suck يمتص
shut يغلق
mud وحل طين
duck بطة
drum طبل
thug سفاح
mug كوز فنجان عميق
mushroom فطر
must يجب
dust غبار
number رقم
nun راهبة
nut جوز بندق
muscle عضلة
sun الشمس
trust ثقة يثق
tunnel نفق
hunt يصطاد
in a hurry مستعجل
run يركض يهرب يدير

باستثناء بعض الكلمات حيث نلفظ u بلفظ يو u :
student طالب
during أثناء
music موسيقى
human إنسان
lute آلة العود
flute مزمار آلة موسيقية
museum متحف

باستثناء بعض الكلمات حيث نلفظ u بلفظ أوو oo :
put يضع
pull يسحب
push يدفع
rule حكم يحكم قاعدة عُرف
plural الجمع
tune لحن نغمة
tuna سمك الطون
full ملئ

حرف شبه صوتي y :نلفظ y بلفظ ي في أول الكلمة
young شاب
yet بعْد
yellow اللون الأصفر
yearn يشتاق يتوق إلى
yard فناء ساحة
yacht يخت
yield ينتج يستسلم
نلفظ y بلفظ e إذا جاء في أخر الكلمة وقبله حرف ساكن
y : تلفظ على شكل ei
silly سخيف
willy nilly شاء أم أبى
really حقا
ً family عائلة
nasty كريه مقزز
crazy مجنون
granny جدة
sunny مشمس
rosemary أكليل الجبل
bribery رشوة ارتشاء
witty ذكي خفيف الدم
ready مستعد جاهز
rosary مسبحة
envy حسد يحسد

نلفظ y بلفظ a إذا جاء في آخر الكلمة وقبله حرف صوتي pay يدفع
say يقول
way طريق طريقة
ray شعاع
guy رجل
grey اللون الرمادي
tray صينية slay يذبح


Long vowels
1- Ae أً
aeroplane طائرة
aerosol بخاخ
aerial هوائي
- Ai أ/مكسورة قليلا
ً air هواء
affair شأن مسألة
again مرة ثانية
Au /أوو
auction مزاد علني
author مؤلف
auditorium قاعة المحاضرات
authentic موثوق به حقيقي
Aw o
law قانون
raw خام ني
paw مخلب
saw منشار

Ea إي
/eat يأكل
reason سبب
sea بحر
tea شاي
seat مقعد
Ee إي
bee نحلة
knee يركع
fee رسم ضريبة
fleet أسطول
deep عميق
flee يفر
Ew يو
few بضع بعض قليل
new جديد
nephew ابنة أو أبن الأخ
ewe نعجة/ شاة
dew ندى
ia إيا
media وسائل الإعلام
Syria سورية
Asia أسيا
Ei إييً – طويلة
weigh يزن
neigh صهيل يصهل
neighbor الجار
Oa أوو طويلة
oath قسم يمين
oasis واحة
oak شجرة السنديان
- Ou آو
loud عالي
sound حرف صوت عميق
hound كلب الصيد
round مدور جولة
- Ow آو
how كيف
cow بقرة
sow يزرع
low منخفض
- Oi أوي
point نقطة فكرة رأي قصد
coin عملة نقدية
join ينضم

ميرا أحمد
09-04-11, 07:56 مساء
ألف ألف شكر أستاذ عصام على ماتقدمه للطلاب .
أذكر أنك قلت يوما :
""تبسيط الفكرة أهم من الفكرة و ما يخرج من القلب لا تمحوه الذاكرة"""

عصام زودي
24-06-11, 07:41 صباحاً
CARDINAL NUMBERS

0 zero
1 one
2 two
3 three
4 four
5 five
6 six
7 seven
8 eight
9 nine
10 ten
11 eleven
12 twelve
13 thirteen
14 fourteen
15 fifteen
16 sixteen
17 seventeen
18 eighteen
19 nineteen

20 twenty
30 thirty
40 forty
50 fifty
60 sixty
70 seventy
80 eighty
90 ninety

21 twenty one
38 thirty eight
66 sixty six
91 ninety one

100 one hundred
200 two hundred
145 one hundred AND forty five
702 seven hundred and two

Each increasing magnitude of one thousand is separated by a comma: "," .

1,000 one thousand
2,000 two thousand
1,100 - 1,900 eleven hundred, twelve hundred... nineteen hundred
1,257 one thousand two hundred and fifty seven
3,088 three thousand and eighty eight
2,001 two thousand and one

10,000 ten thousand
34,598 thirty four thousand five hundred and ninety eight

100,000 one hundred thousand
598,222 five hundred and ninety eight thousand two hundred and twenty two

4,000,000 four million*
368,000,000 three hundred and sixty eight million
7,000,000,000 seven billion
8,000,000,000,000 eight trillion

*Americans say: "four million". The British say: "four millions",
with the "s" for plural

ORDINAL NUMBERS:

1st first
2nd second
3rd third
4th fourth
5th fifth
6th sixth
7th seventh
8th eighth
9th ninth
10th tenth

11th eleventh
12th twelfth
13th thirteenth
14th fourteenth
15th fifteenth
16th sixteenth
17th seventeenth
18th eighteenth
19th nineteenth

>> The "y" of "twenty", "thirty", "forty", etc. is changed to "i" before the "eth":

20th twentieth
30th thirtieth
40th fortieth
50th fiftieth
60th sixtieth

21st twenty first
22nd twenty second
33rd thirty third
54th fifty fourth
75th seventy fifth
46th forty sixth
57th fifty seventh
88th eighty eighth
99th ninety ninth

100th hundredth
1,000 thousandth
1,000,000 millionth
1,000,000,000 billionth

388th three hundred and eighty eighth

DATES:

-When is Christmas?
Christmas is December twenty fifth.
-When is American Independence Day?
It is July 4th.
or: It is the fourth of July.
-What is the date of international Labor Day?
Labor Day is May 1st.
-What year did World War Two end?
It ended in nineteen forty five.
-What year were you born?
I was born in nineteen fifty eight.

FRACTIONS:

1/2 one half
1/3 one third
2/3 two thirds
3/5 three fifths
16/83 sixteen eighty thirds

In numbers of decreasing magnitude, whole numbers are separated by a
period: "." from fractions.

1.5 one point five
0.6 zero point six, or: oh point six (only in spoken English)
592.66 five hundred and ninety two point six six
3.1416 three point one four one six*

*XXX Not: three point one thousand four hundred and sixteen

= equals/is + plus/and - minus/less/negative
x times / divided by > is less than
< is greater than % percent
3 x 3 three squared
9 = ? x ? What is the square root of nine?
3 x 3 x 3 three cubed / three to the third power
8 = ? x ? x ? What is the third/cube root of eight?
3 x 3 x 3 x 3 three to the fourth (power)
16 = ? x ? x ? x ? What is the fourth root of sixteen?

? = 1 + 1 How much is one plus one? / What is one and one?
1 + 1 = 2 One plus one equals two. / One and one is two.*
? = 2 x 16 What is / How much is two times sixteen?
2 x 16 = 32 Two times sixteen is thirty two.
10 - 15 = -15 Ten minus fifteen equals negative fifteen/minus fifteen.

XXX Not: "One and one ARE two"

AMERICAN MONEY VOCABULARY:

$1.00 a dollar / a buck $0.01 a cent
$50.00 fifty dollars / fifty bucks
$29.99 twenty nine dollars and ninety nine cents / twenty nine ninety nine
$1,000 a grand $10,000 ten grand

AMERICAN COINS:

$0.50 a half dollar $0.25 a quarter
$0.10 a dime $0.05 a nickel $0.01 penny


EXERCISES:
Write out the following numbers.

0. 88
eighty eight
1. 298 two hundred and ninety eight

2. 312
3. 505
4. 8,629
5. 90,048
6. 435,666
7. 60,000,000
8. 1,000,000,000
9. 5,000,000,000,000
10. 0.8
11. 3,414.543
12. 33.333

Write the questions and the answers.

0. 36 + 45 = ?
What is thirty six plus forty five?
Thirty six plus forty five is eighty one.
13. 100 - 50 = ?
14. 10 + 20 + 12 = ?
15. 6 x 8 = ?
16. 10/4 = ?
17. 15/2 = ?
18. 1/4 = ? %

Write out the American money amounts:

0. $16.99
Sixteen dollars and ninety nine cents
19. $45.00
20. $0.29
21. $100.50
22. $2.50
23. $2,000
24. $3,000,000
25. $10.00

POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS:

2. three hundred and twelve
3. five hundred and five
4. eight thousand six hundred and twenty nine
5. ninety thousand and forty eight
6. four hundred and thirty five thousand, six hundred and sixty six
7. sixty million
8. one billion
9. five trillion
10. zero point eight
11. three thousand four hundred and fourteen point five four three
12. thirty three point three three three
or:
thirty three and a third
13. How much is one hundred minus fifty?
One hundred minus fifty is fifty.
14. How much is ten plus twenty plus twelve?
Ten plus twenty plus twelve is forty two.
15. How much is six times eight?
Six times eight is forty eight.
16. How much is ten divided by four?
Ten divided by four is two and a half.
17. How much is fifteen divided by two?
Fifteen divided by two is seven point five.
18. What percentage is one fourth?
One fourth is twenty five percent.
19. forty five dollars
20. twenty nine cents
21. one hundred dollars and fifty cents
22. two fifty
23. two thousand dollars
24. three million bucks
25. ten bucks

عصام زودي
29-06-11, 09:32 صباحاً
قائمة المصطلحات الرياضية :


-A-
Absolute Number = عدد مطلق
Absolute Value = القيمة المطلقة
Abstract Algebra = جبر مجرد
Accuracy = دقة
Addition = جمع
Algebra = الجبر
Algorithm = خوارزمية
Amount = مقدار
Analysis = تحليل
Application =تطبيق
Applied = تطبيقي
Approximation = تقريب
Arbitrary = اختياري
Arithmetic = حساب
Asymptotic = محاذي = مقارب
Axis = محور


-B-
Backward Difference = الفروق الخلفية
Basic = أساسي
Binary = ثنائي
Binomial = ثنائي الحد = ذات الحدين
Bisect = ينصف
Bir = رقم ثنائي
Boundary = حدود
Bounded = محدود
Byte = بايت


-C-
Calculus = حسبان = التفاضل واالتكامل
Call = استدعاء
Center = مركز
Center difference = فروق مركزية
Characteristic = مميز
Circumference = محيط
Closed = مغلق
Closed internal = مجال مغلق
Code = شفرة = كود
Coefficients= أمثال = معاملات
Column = عمود
Common = مشترك
Commutative = تبديلي = إبدالي
Comparison = مقارنة
Complement = متمم
Complex = عقدي = مركب
Computation = حساب
Computer = حاسب إلكتروني = حاسوب
Computing Method = طرق حسابية
Condition = شرط
Constant = ثابت
Continuity = استمرار = اتصال
Convergent = متقارب
Cross Product = الضرب الاتجاهي = الجداء التصالبي
Cycle = دورة
Cylinder = اسطوانة


-D-
Data = معطيات = معلومات
Decimal = عشري
Decimal system = نظام عشري
Decreasing = متناقص
Define = يعرف
Definition = تعريف
Derivative = مشتقة
Determinate = معين = محدد
Diagonal = قطر
Diagram = مخطط = رسم تخطيطي
Differences = فروق
Differential = تفاضلي
Differentiation =تفاضل
Digit = رقم
Digital Computer = حاسب رقمي
Dimension = بعد
Distribution = توزيع
Divergent = متباعد
Divided differences = فروق مقسمة
Dot Product = الضرب العددي = الجداء النقطي


-E-
Eigenvalue = قيمة ذاتيى
Eigenvector = متجه ذاتي
Element = عنصر
Elimination = حذف
Ellipse = قطع ناقص = اهليلج
Equal = يساوي
Equation = معادلة
Equations System = نظام معادلات = نظمة معادلات
Equt = متساوي الـ
Error = خطأ
Even = زوجي
Expansion = نشر
Exponential = أسي
Extrapolation = استيفاء خارجي


-F –
Factor = عامل
False = خطأ
False position = الوضع الخاطئ
Field = حقل
Fine = دقيق
Finite = منته
Finite Diffrences = فروق منتهية
Floating = عائم
Flow = انسياب
Formula = صيغة
Function = دالة = اقتران = تابع = تطبيق
Functional = تابعي = دالي
Fundamental = أساسي


-G -
General term = حد عام
Geometric = هندسي
Global = شامل
Grid = شبكة
Group = زمرة


- H -
Half = نصف
Homogeneous = متجانس
Hypothesis = فرضية



-I-
Identity = متطابقة
Identity Element = العنصر المحايد
Illconditional = معتل الشرط
Implicit =ضمني
Impossible = مستحيل
Induction = استقراء
Inequality = متفاوتة =متباينة = متراجحة = لا متساوية
Infinite = لا منته = لا نهائي
Initial = ابتدائي
Inner Product = الضرب الداخلي
Integer = عدد صحيح
Integral = تكامل
Interpolation = استيفاء داخلي
Interval = فترة
Inverse = معكوس
Iteration = تقريب متتالي




- J -
Jacobian = الجاكوبيان




- L -
Law = قانون
Least-square = المربعات الصغرى
Limit = نهاية = غاية
Linear = خطي
Linear Algebra = جبر خطي
Locus =محل هندسي
Logarithm = لوغاريتم
Loop = حلقة




- M -
Main = رئيسي
Map = تطبيق
Matrix = مصفوفة
Mean = وسط = متوسط
Measure = قياس
Memory = ذاكرة
Mesh = شبكة
Multi = متعدد
Multiple = مضاعف




-N-
Necessary = لازم
Negative = سالب
Nested = متداخل
Newton s –Formula = صيغة نيوتن
Nonlinear = لا خطي
Norm = معيار
Number = عدد
Numerical =عددي




-O-
Open = مفتوح
Operator = مؤثر
Order = مرتبة
Origin = نقطة الأصل
Orthogonal = متعامد




- P -
Pair = زوج
Parabola = قطع مكافئ
Parallel = متوازي
Parameter = وسيط
Partial = جزئي
Plane = مستوى
Point = نقطة
Polynomial = حدودية = كثيرة حدود
Product = جـداء = حاصل ضرب
Propagation of error = الخطأ المتراكم




-Q-
Quadratic = تربيعي
Quarter = ربع



-R-
Radius = نصف قطر
Random = عشوائي
Range = مدى
Rate = معدل
Ratio = نسبة
Rectangle = مستطيل
Recursive = مرتد = تكراري
Reduced = مختزل
Relative error = خطأ نسبي
Relaxation = الاسترخاء = التخفيف
Remaineder = الباقي
Round off = التدوير = التقريب



-S-
Set = مجموعة
Simpson s- formula = صيغة سيمبسون
Solution = حل
Substitution = تعويض
System of equation ( انظر Equations System )


-T-
Table = جدول
Test = اختبار
Term = حد
Trapezoidal rule = قاعدة شبه المنحرف


-U-
Unique = وحيد
Unit = وحدة
Upper bound =حد علوي


- V -
Value =قيمة
Variable = متغير
Vector = متجه


- W -
Width = عرض


- Z -
Zero = صفر
Zero matrix = مصفوفة صفرية
zone = نطاق

عصام زودي
29-06-11, 09:42 صباحاً
Chemical equilibrium اتزان كيميائي
Combustion احتراق
Single displacement احلال احادي
Double displacement احلال مزدوج
Reduction اختزال
Aromatic Substitution استبدال أروماتي
Extraction استخلاص
Ester استر
(اوعى تكونوا متعرفوا الكلام ده هههههههه)
Acetone أسيتون
Natural cement اسمنت طبيعي
Acetylene أسيتيلين
Canal Rays أشعة القناة
Infrared rays اشعة تحت الحمراء
X-Rays أشعة سينية
Gamma Rays أشعة غاما
Ultraviolet rays أشعة فوق بنفسجية
Cathode Rays أشعة مهبطية
Quantum numbers أعداد الكم
Stalagmite أعمدة صاعدة
Stalactite أعمدة هابطة
Acidic Oxides أكاسيد حمضية
Basic Oxides أكاسيد قاعدية
Actinides أكتينيدات
Oxidation اكسدة
Carbon dating التأريخ الكربوني
Aldehydes ألدهيدات
Aldose الدوز
Al_Razi الرازي
OptimalpH value الرقم الهيدروجيني الأمثل
Electron affinity الفة الكترونية
Alkane الكان
Cycloalkane الكان حلقي
Alkyne الكاين
Electron الكترون
Valence electrons الكترونات التكافؤ
Non bonding electrons الكترونات غير رابطة
Alnico ألنيكو
Alkene الكين
Reaction mechanism آلية التفاعل
Ammonia أمونيا( نشادر)
Amide أميد
Amylase أميلوز
Amylopectin Amine أميلوبكتين أمين
Ammonium Test tube أنبوب اختبار أمونيوم
Discharge tube أنبوب تفريغ
Angstrom انجستروم
Nuclear Fission اندماج نووي
Enzyme أنزيم
Nuclear Fusion انشطار نووي
Aniline أنيلين
Oppenheimer أوبنهيمر
Ozone أوزون
Carbon monoxide أول أكسيد الكربون
Ether ايثر
Einstein اينشتاين
IUPAC أيوباك
Ion أيون
Hydronium ion أيون الهيدرونيوم
Zwitterions أيون مزدوج
Common Ion أيون مشترك
Spectator ions أيونات متفرجة
Complex Ions أيونات معقدة
Pepsin ببسين
Proton بروتون
Acidic proton بروتون حمضي
Bronze برونز
Mercury battery بطارية زئبق
Planck بلانك
Polymerization بلمرة
Zinc blende بلند الخارصين
Liquid crystal بلورة سائلة
Pentose بنتوز
Bunsen بنسن
Bohr بور
Borax بوراكس
Polystyrene بولي ستايرين
Boyle بويل
Common Ion effect تأثير الأيون المشترك
Allotropy تآصل
Oxidization تأكسد
Auto ionization تأين ذاتي
Atomization of water تأين ذاتي للماء
Vaporization تبخر
Tetrose تتروز
Heterogeneous Catalysis تحفيز غير متجانس
Homogeneous Catalysis تحفيز متجانس
Decomposition تحلل
Radioactive Decay تحلل نووي تلقائي
Quantitative analysis تحليل كمي
Electrolysis تحليل كهربائي
Qualitative analysis تحليل كيفي ( وصفي)
Effusion تدفق
Hydrogen Bonding ترابط هيدروجيني
Trypsin تربسين
Photosynthesis تركيب ضوئي
Concentration تركيز
Molarconcentration تركيز مولاري
Molal concentration تركيز مولالي
Tritium تريتيوم
Triose تريوز
Sublimation تسامي
Structural isomerism تشكل بنائي ( تماكب بنيوي)
Functional group isomerism تشكل وظيفي ( تماكب وظيفي )
Effective collision تصادم فعال
Isomerism تصاوغ (تشكل)
Saponification تصبن
Substition Reaction تفاعل استبدال
Esterification reaction تفاعل أسترة
Addition Reaction تفاعل إضافة
Thermite reaction تفاعل الثيرمايت
Oxidation reduction reaction تفاعل تأكسد واختزال
Precipitation Reaction تفاعل ترسيب
Neutralization Reaction تفاعل تعادل
Elimination Reaction تفاعل حذف
Exothermic reaction تفاعل طارد للطاقة
Chemical Reaction تفاعل كيميائي
Endothermic reaction تفاعل ماص للطاقة
Chain Reaction تفاعل متسلسل
Hydrogenation Reaction تفاعل هدرجة
Redox reactions تفاعلات التأكسد والاختزال
Teflon تفلون
Vulcanization تقسية(فلكنة)
Distillation تقطير
Fractional distillation تقطير تجزيئي
Condensation تكاثف
Valency تكافؤ
Talc تلك
Dry clean تنظيف جاف
Hybridization تهجين
Electron configuration توزيع (تركيب) الكتروني
Maxwell- Boltzmamnn distribution توزيع ماكسويل - بولتزمان
Toluene تولوين
Universal gas Constant ثابت الغاز العالمي
Equilibrium Constant (Kc) ثابت الاتزان
Boiling Point Elevation Constant ثابت الارتفاع في درجة الغليان
Freezing point Depression Constant ثابت الانخفاض في درجة التجمد
Rate constant ثابت السرعة
Planck's constant ثابت بلانك
Acid ionization constant ثابت تأين الحمض
Base ionization constant ثابت تأين القاعدة
Water ionization constant ثابت تأين الماء
Carbon dioxide ثاني أكسيد الكربون
Trinitrotoluene ( T N T ثلاثي نيتروتولوين (
Tripeptide ثلاثي البيتيد
Dry ice ثلج جاف
Octahedral ثماني الأوجه منتظم
Diethyl ether ثنائي إيثيل ايثر
Dipeptide ثنائي الببتيد
Jaber Ibn _ Hayyan جابر بن حيان
Gasoline جازولين
Gay - Lussac جايلوساك
Periodic table جدول دوري
Graphite جرافيت
ppb جزء من البليون
ppm جزء من المليون
Molecule جزيء
Polar molecule جزيء قطبي
Diatomic molecules جزيئات ثنائية الذرة
Salt bridge جسر ملحي(قنطرة ملحية)
Alpha particles جسيمات الفا
Beta Particles جسيمات بيتا
Glycogen جلايكوجين
Glycol ethelene جلايكول ايثيلين
Galvanization جلفنة
Glucose جلوكوز
Glycerol جليسيرول
pH meter جهاز قياس الحموضة
Standard cell potential جهد الخلية المعياري
Standard electrode Potential جهد القطب المعياري
Geochemistry جيوكيمياء
Transition state حالة انتقالية
Molar volume حجم مولي
Brimstone حجر محترق
Limestone حجر جيري
Brownian motion حركة براونيه
Benzene ring حلقةالبنزين
Milk of magnesia حليب المغنيسيا
Cathodic protection حمايةمهبطية
Acid حمض
Monoprotic acid حمض أحادي البروتون
Arrhenius acid حمض أرهينيوس
Oxo acid حمض أكسجيني
Acidic acid حمض الأديبيك
Ascorbic acid حمض الأسكوربيك
Tartaric acid حمض الترتريك
Acetic acid حمض الخليك ( الأسيتيك)
Citric acid حمض الستريك
Formic acid حمض الفورميك
Sulphuric acid حمض الكبريتيك
Nitric acid حمض النيتريك
Hydrochloric acid حمض الهيدروكلوريك
Bronsted – Lowry acid حمض برونستد ـ لوري
Diprotic acid حمض ثنائي البروتون
Weak Acid حمض ضعيف
Strong acid حمض قوي
Carboxylic acid حمض كربوكسيلي (حموض عضوية )
Lewis acid حمض لويس
Conjugate acid حمض مرافق ( مقترن )
Amino acids حموض أمينية
Fatty acids حموض دهنية
Organic acids حموض عضوية ( حمض كربوكسيلي)
Paramagnetism خاصية بارامغناطيسية
Diamagnetism خاصية ديامغناطيسية
Fume hood خزانة الأبخرة
Rate determining step خطوة محدود لسرعة التفاعل
Linear خطي
Vinegar خل
Dry cell خلية جافة
Downs cell خلية داونز
Galvanic cell خلية غلفانية
Electrochemical cell خلية كهركيميائية
Fuel cell خلية وقود
Colligate properties خواص ترابطية
Dalton دالتون
Normal boiling point درجة الغليان العيارية
Freezing point درجة التجمد
Absolute temperature درجة الحرارة المطلقة
Boiling point درجة الغليان
Particles دقائق
Denaturation دنترة (مسخ البروتين)
Fats دهون
Period دورة
Volumetric flask دورق حجمي
Deuterium ديوتيريوم
Solubility ذائبية
Atom ذرة
Central Atom ذرة مركزية
Exited atom ذرة مهيجة
Valency ذرية (تكافؤ)
Single bond رابطة أحادية
Ionic bond رابطة أيونية
Bond-pi رابطة باي
Peptide linkage رابطة ببتيدية
Covalent bond رابطة تساهمية (مشتركة)
Coordinating bond رابطة تناسقية
Triple bond رابطة ثلاثية
Double bond رابطة ثنائية
Metallic bond رابطة فلزية
Polar bond رابطة قطبية
Chemical bond رابطة كيميائية
Polar Covalent Bond رابطة مشتركة قطبية
Hydrogen bond رابطة هيدروجينية
Carbon tetrachloride رابع كلوريد الكربون
Ramsay رامزي
Tetrahedral رباعي الأوجه منتظم
Reaction order رتبة التفاعل
pH رقم هيدروجيني
Lewis symbol رمز لويس
Roentgen رونتجن
Aquamarine زبرجد
Pyrex glass زجاج بايركس
Conjugate acid base pair زوج مرافق من حمض وقاعدة
Oils زيوت
Alloy سبيكة
Nichrome سبيكة النكروم
Steroids ستيرويدات
Stellite ستيلايت
Burette سحاحة
Rate of chemical reaction سرعة التفاعل الكيميائي
Monosaccharide سكر أحادي
Disaccharide سكر ثنائي
Polysaccharide سكر متعدد
Reducing sugar سكر مختزل
Sucrose سكروز
Oligosaccharides سكريات قليلة الوحدات
Electrochemical series سلسلة كهركيميائية
Chain Branched Hydrocarbon سلسلة هيدروكربونية متفرعة
Amphoteric behavior سلوك أمفوتيري
Cellulose سيليولوز
Jacques Alexander Charles Chadwick شارل شادويك
Crystal lattice شبكة بلورية
Effective nuclear charge شحنة النواة الفعالة
Partial charge شحنة جزئية
Rust صدأ
Ionic solid صلب أيوني
Crystalline solid صلب بلوري
Covalent network solid صلب تساهمي شبكي
Molecular solid صلب جزيئي
Amorphous solid صلب غير بلوري
Metallic solid صلب فلزي
Baking soda صودا الخبيز
Washing soda صودا الغسيل
Caustic soda صودا كاوية
Structural formula صيغة بنائية
Molecular formula صيغة جزيئية
Osmotic pressure ضغط بخاري
Ionization energy طاقة التأين
Second ionization energy طاقة التأين الثانية
Heat of vaporization طاقة التبخر
Activation energy طاقة التنشيط
Bond energy طاقة الرابطة
Atomization energy طاقة تحرير الذرات
Centrifuge طرد مركزي
Frasch process طريقة فراش
Haber process طريقة هابر
Electroplating طلاء كهربائي
Wavelength طول موجي
Atomic spectrum طيف ذري
Electromagnetic spectrum طيف كهرمغناطيسي
Continuous spectrum طيف متصل
Visible spectrum طيف مرئي
Tyndall effect ظاهرة تندال
Standard Conditions ظروف معيارية( قياسية)
Oxidizing agent عامل مؤكسد
Reducing agent عامل مختزل
Catalyst عامل مساعد
Litmus عباد الشمس
Geiger counter عداد غايغر
Avogadro’s number عدد أفوجادرو
Oxidation number عدد التأكسد
Coordination number عدد التناسق
Atomic number عدد ذري
Atomic mass عدد كتلي
Principal quantum number عدد كمي رئيس
Azimuthal quantum number عدد كمي فرعي
Spin quantum number عدد كمي مغزلي
Magnetic quantum number عدد كمي مغناطيسي
Dipole moment عزم قطبي
water hardness عسر الماء
Transition elemints عناصر انتقالية
Inner transition elements عناصر انتقالية داخلية
Main transition elements عناصر انتقالية رئيسة
Synthetic elements عناصر مخلقة " عناصر اصطناعية "
Radioactive elements عناصر مشعة
Representative elements عناصر ممثلة
Gas غاز
Water gas غاز الماء
Ideal Gas غاز مثالي
Realgas غاز حقيقي
Biogas غاز حيوي
Phosgene غاز الخردل
Noble gases غازات نبيلة
Gasoline غازولين
Gay_Lussac غايلوساك
Graphite غرافيت
Glycogen غلايكوجين
Glycolethylene غلايكول ايثيلين
Galvanization غلفنة
Glucose غلوكوز
Glycerol غليسيرول
Half Life فترة نصف العمر
Cracking فرقعة
Fructose فركتوز
Blast Furnace فرن لافح
Freon فريون
Metal فلز
Noble metals فلزات نبيلة
Orbital فلك
Vulcanization فلكنة (تقسية)
Photon فوتون
Phosgene فوسجين
Hydrogen peroxide فوق أكسيد الهيدروجين
Steel فولاذ
Mild steel فولاذ قابل للطرق
Stainless steel فولاذ مقاوم للصدأ
Voltmeter فولتميتر
Vitamin فيتامين
Phenol فينول
Phenolphthalein فينولفثالين
Base قاعدة
Arrhenius base قاعدة أرهينيوس
Octet rule قاعدة الثمانية
Bronsted Lowry base قاعدة برونستد ـ لوري
Weak Base قاعدة ضعيفة
Strong base قاعدة قوية
Lewis base قاعدة لويس
Markovinikoffs rule قاعدة ماركوفينيكوف
Conjugate base قاعدة مرافقة ( مقترنة )
Hunds rule قاعدة هوند
Dilution law قانون التخفيف
Combined Law القانون الجامع
Rate Law قانون السرعة
Ideal Gas Low قانون الغاز المثالي
Definite Proportion Law قانون النسب الثابتة
Boyle’s Law قانون بويل
Daltons law of partial pressure قانون دالتون للضغوط الجزئية
Charles’sLaw قانون شارل
Gay Lussac’sLaw قانون غايلوساك
Grahams law of diffusion and effusion قانون غراهام للانتشار والتدفق
Henrys Law قانون هنري
Bleaching قصر الألوان
Standard hydrogen electrode قطب الهيدروجين المعياري
Inertelectrode قطب خامل
Cotton قطن
Alkaline metals قلويات
Alkaline earth metals قلويات ترابية
Funnel قمع
Buchner Funnel قمع بخنر
Separation Funnel قمع فصل
Hydrogen bomb قنبلة هيدروجينية
Saltbridge قنطرة ملحية
Vital force قوة حيوية
Intermolecular attractive forces قوى التجاذب بين الجزيئات
Dipole-dipole forces قوى ثنائي القطب
London forces قوى لندن
Iodometry قياسات يودية
Hydrophobic كاره للماء
Cavendish كافندش
Caffeine كافيين
Alcohol كحول
Primary alcohol كحول أولي
Tertiary alcohol كحول ثالثي
Secondary alcohol كحول ثانوي
Absolute alcohol كحول مطلق
Carbohydrate كربوهيدرات
Calcium carbide كربيد الكالسيوم
Chromatography كروماتوغرافيا
Column Chromatography كروماتوغرافيا العمود
Bucky Ball كرة باكي
Mole fraction كسر مولي
CFC كلوروفلوروكربونات
Chlorophyll كلوروفيل
Electro negativity كهرسلبية
Quartz كوارتز
Indicators كواشف
Quanta كوانتا
Marie Curie كوري (ماري) (
Cholesterol كوليسترول
Ketose كيتوز
Ketone كيتون
Kerosene كيروسين
Biochemistry كيمياء حياتية
Industrial Chemistry كيمياء صناعية
Organic Chemistry كيمياء عضوية
Non metals لا فلزات
Lavoisier لافوازييه
Lactose لاكتوز
Plastics لدائن
Lanthanides لانثانيدات
Lipase لايبيز
Viscosity لزوجة
Bunsen burner لهب بنسن
Lechaltelier لوشاتيليه
Lipids ليبيدات
Limewater ماء الجيرHard water ماء عسر
Aquaregia ماء ملكي
Limitingreactant determination مادة محددة للسرعة
Diamond ماس
Maltose مالتوز
Maltase مالتيز
Antifreeze مانع تجمد
Avogadro’s Principle مبدأ أفوجادرو
Pauli exclusion principle مبدأ باولي للإستبعاد
Lechateliers principle مبدأ لوشاتيليه
Polymer مبلمر
Addition polymer مبلمر إضافة
Condensation polymer مبلمر تكثيف
Polyester مبلمر متعدد استر
Polyamide مبلمر متعدد اميد
Isomers Structural متشكلات بنائية
Isomers Functional متشكلات وظيفية
EnzymeInhibitor مثبط الأنزيم
Planar triangular مثلث مسطح
Desicator مجفف
Group مجموعة
Alkyl group مجموعة الكيل
Carbonyl group مجموعة كربونيل
Functional group مجموعة وظيفية
Hydrophilic محب للماء
Solution محلول
Tollens reagent محلول تولين
Acidic solution محلول حمضي
Fehling solution محلول فهلنغ
Basic solution محلول قاعدي
Neutralized solution محلول متعادل
Dilute solution محلول مخفف
Concentrated solution محلول مركز
Saturated solution محلول مشبع
Buffer solution محلول منظم
Graduate cylinder مخبار مدرج
Solute مذاب
Solvent مذيب
Micelles مذيلات
Square planar مربع مسطح
Percentage yield مردود مئوي
Coenzymes مرافقات الأنزيم
Aromatic compound مركب أروماتي
Ionic compound مركب أيوني
Molecular compound مركب جزيئي
Organic Compound مركب عضوي
Griniard reagent مركب غرينيارد
Saturated Compound مركب مشبع
Energy level مستوى الطاقة
Denaturation مسخ البروتين ( دنترة )
Hydrocarbon derivatives مشتقات الهيدروكربونات
Anode مصعد
Anti acids مضادات الحموضة
Acid rain مطر حمضي
Net ionic equation معادلة أيونية صافية
Chemical Equation معادلة كيميائية
Balanced Equation معادلة موزونة
Titration معايرة
Reaction rate معدل سرعة التفاعل
Activated complex معقد نشط
Nuclear reactor مفاعل نووي
Condenser مكثف
Simple cubic cell مكعبية بسيطة
Body entered cubic مكعبية ممركزة الجسم
Face centred cubic مكعبية ممركزة الوجوه
Salt ملح
Epsom salt ملح إبسوم
Acidic salt ملح حمضي
Basic salt ملح قاعدي
Nutralized salt ملح متعادل
Robert Andrews Millikan مليكان . روبرت
Bent منحني
Mendeleyev مندلييف
Cathode مهبط
Molarity مولارية
Molality مولالية
Monomer مونومر
Reaction mechanism ميكانيكية التفاعل
Nylon نايلون
Starch نشا
Ammonia نشادر (أمونبا)
Radioactivity نشاط اشعاعي
Half Life نصف العمر
Half reaction نصف تفاعل
Covalent Radius نصف قطر التساهم
Atomic radius نصف قطر الذرة
Isotopes نظائر
Collision theory نظرية التصادم
Atomic theory نظرية ذرية
Phlogiston theory نظرية الفلوجستون
Dalton theory نظرية دالتون
Valence Bond Theory نظرية رابطة التكافؤ
Naphthalene نفثالين
Petrol نفط
Equivalence point نقطة التكافؤ
Flash point نقطة الوميض
Nichrome نكروم
Thomson model نموذج ثومسون
Rutherford model نموذج رذرفورد
Atomic nucleus نواة الذرة
Noble نوبل
NiCad نيكاد
Neutron نيوترون
Halogens هالوجينات
Alkyl halide هاليد الكيل
Aromatic halides هاليدات أروماتية
Oilofhydrogenation هدرجة الزيوت
Triangular pyramidal هرمي ثلاثي
Hexose هكسوز
Hormone هورمون
Insulin Hormone هورمون الأنسولين
Thyroxin Hormone هورمون الثايروكسين
Growth Hormone هورمون النمو
Unsaturated hydrocarbon هيدروكربون غير مشبع
Saturated hydrocarbon هيدروكربون مشبع
Hydrocarbon هيدروكربون
Hertz هيرتز
Heme هيم
Unit cell وحدة خلية
Filter paper ورقة ترشيح
Urea يوريا
Combination اتحاد

عصام زودي
04-10-11, 08:39 مساء
THE
Articles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according to the gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman, the children
'The' is used:
to refer to something which has already been mentioned.
An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk,
and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.
when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even if it has not been mentioned before.
'Where's the bathroom?'
'It's on the first floor.'
in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object:
The man who wrote this book is famous.
'Which car did you scratch?' 'The red one.
My house is the one with a blue door.'
to refer to objects we regard as unique:
the sun, the moon, the world
before superlatives and ordinal numbers: (see Adjectives)
the highest building, the first page, the last chapter.
with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:
the Japanese (see Nouns - Nationalities), the old
with names of geographical areas and oceans:
the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic
with decades, or groups of years:
she grew up in the seventies

عصام زودي
04-10-11, 08:43 مساء
[LEFT][/LEF



Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels),
'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)
Examples
A boy
An apple
A car
An orange
A house
An opera
NOTE:
An before an h mute - an hour, an honour.
A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a european, a university, a unit
The indefinite article is used:
to refer to something for the first time:
An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
Would you like a drink?
I've finally got a good job.
to refer to a particular member of a group or class
Examples:
with names of jobs:
John is a doctor.
Mary is training to be an engineer.
He wants to be a dancer.
with nationalities and religions:
John is an Englishman.
Kate is a Catholic.
with musical instruments:
Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.
(BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.")
with names of days:
I was born on a Thursday
to refer to a kind of, or example of something:
the mouse had a tiny nose
the elephant had a long trunk
it was a very strange car
with singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such':
What a shame!
She's such a beautiful girl.
meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person:
I'd like an orange and two lemons please.
The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.
Notice also that we usually say a hundred, a thousand, a million.
NOTE: that we use 'one' to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers:
I don't know one person who likes eating elephant meat.
We've got six computers but only one printer.
There is no article:
T]

عصام زودي
04-10-11, 08:47 مساء
There is no article:
with names of countries (if singular)
Germany is an important economic power.
He's just returned from Zimbabwe.
(But: I'm visiting the United States next week.)
with the names of languages
French is spoken in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin.
Indonesian is a relatively new language.
with the names of meals.
Lunch is at midday.
Dinner is in the evening.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.
with people's names (if singular):
John's coming to the party.
George King is my uncle.
(But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)
with titles and names:
Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.
(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.)
After the 's possessive case:
His brother's car.
Peter's house.
with professions:
Engineering is a useful career.
He'll probably go into medicine.
with names of shops:
I'll get the card at Smith's.
Can you go to Boots for me?
with years:
1948 was a wonderful year.
Do you remember 1995?
With uncountable nouns:
Rice is the main food in Asia.
Milk is often added to tea in England.
War is destructive.
with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands:
Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
She lives near Lake Windermere.
Have you visited Long Island?
with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports:
Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
Can you direct me to Bond Street?
She lives in Florence.
They're flying from Heathrow.
in some fixed expressions, for example:
by car
by train
by air
on foot
on holiday
on air (in broadcasting)
at school
at work
at University
in church
in prison
in bed

عصام زودي
04-10-11, 08:50 مساء
THIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE
Function
The demonstratives this, that, these, those ,show where an object or person is in relation to the speaker.
This (singular) and these (plural) refer to an object or person near the speaker. That (singular) and those (plural) refer to an object or person further away. It can be a physical closeness or distance as in:
Who owns that house? (distant)
Is this John's house? (near)
Or it can be a psychological distance as in:
That's nothing to do with me.. (distant)
This is a nice surprise! (near)
Position
Before the noun.
Before the word 'one'.
Before an adjective + noun.
Alone when the noun is 'understood'.
Examples:
This car looks cleaner than that one.
This old world keeps turning round
Do you remember that wonderful day in June?
I'll never forget this.

عصام زودي
04-10-11, 08:54 مساء
A few and few, a little and little
These expressions show the speaker's attitude towards the quantity he/she is referring to.
A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describe the quantity in a positive way:
Examples
"I've got a few friends" (= maybe not many, but enough)
"I've got a little money" (= I've got enough to live on)
Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way:
Examples
Few people visited him in hospital (= he had almost no visitors)
He had little money (= almost no money)

عصام زودي
04-10-11, 08:57 مساء
Some and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describe an indefinite or incomplete quantity.
Some is used in positive statements:
Examples
I had some rice for lunch
He's got some books from the library.
It is also used in questions where we are sure about the answer:
Examples
Did he give you some tea? (= I'm sure he did.)
Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? (= I think there is)
Some is used in situations where the question is not a request for information, but a method of making a request, encouraging or giving an invitation:
Examples
Could I have some books, please?
Why don't you take some books home with you?
Would you like some books?
Any is used in questions and with not in negative statements:
Examples
Have you got any tea?
He didn't give me any tea.
I don't think we've got any coffee left.
SOME in positive sentences.
Examples
I will have some news next week.
She has some valuable books in her house.
Philip wants some help with his exams.
There is some butter in the fridge.
We need some cheese if we want to make a fondue.
SOME in questions:
Examples
Would you like some help?
Will you have some more roast beef?
ANY in negative sentences
Examples
She doesn't want any kitchen appliances for Christmas.
They don't want any help moving to their new house.
No, thank you. I don't want any more cake.
There isn't any reason to complain.
ANY in interrogative sentences
Examples
Do you have any friends in London?
Have they got any children?
Do you want any groceries from the shop?
Are there any problems with your work?




nouns made with SOME, ANY and NO
Some + -thing -body -one -where
Any +
No +
Compound nouns with some- and any- are used in the same way as some and any.
Positive statements:
Examples
Someone is sleeping in my bed.
He saw something in the garden.
I left my glasses somewhere in the house.
Questions:
Examples
Are you looking for someone? (= I'm sure you are)
Have you lost something? (= I'm sure you have)
Is there anything to eat? (real question)
Did you go anywhere last night?
Negative statements:
Examples
She didn't go anywhere last night.
He doesn't know anybody here.
NOTICE that there is a difference in emphasis between nothing, nobody etc. and not ... anything, not ... anybody:
Examples
I don't know anything about it. (= neutral, no emphasis)
I know nothing about it (= more emphatic, maybe defensive)
SOMETHING, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHERE
Examples
I have something to tell you.
There is something to drink in the fridge.
He knows somebody in New York
Susie has somebody staying with her.
They want to go somewhere hot for their holidays.
Keith is looking for somewhere to live.
ANYBODY, ANYTHING, ANYWHERE
Examples
Is there anybody who speaks English here?
Does anybody have the time?
Is there anything to eat?
Have you anything to say?
He doesn't have anything to stay tonight.
I wouldn't eat anything except at Maxim's.
NOBODY, NOTHING, NOWHERE
Examples
There is nobody in the house at the moment
When I arrived there was nobody to meet me.
I have learnt nothing since I began the course.
There is nothing to eat.
There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris in the Spring.
Homeless people have nowhere to go at night.
ANY can also be used in positive statements to mean 'no matter which', 'no matter who', 'no matter what':
Examples
You can borrow any of my books.
They can choose anything from the menu.
You may invite anybody to dinner, I don't mind